Pagina 75 van 98

Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Geplaatst: Do Feb 25, 2016 7:08 pm
door xplosive
Er zal neem ik aan inderdaad een minimale afstand zijn tot waar het ruimtevaartuig de ster kan naderen. Hoe het één zich dan precies tot het ander verhoudt zou dan uitgerekend moeten worden. Verder biedt de "magnetic sail" van Robert Zubrin wellicht ook nog extra mogelijkheden voor afremming.

Ik denk dat daar op de één of andere manier wel uit te komen moet zijn. Mogelijk duurt de reis enkele jaren langer als de remweg langer moet zijn om voldoende te kunnen afremmen.

Dan nog uit How Do Gravitational Slingshots Work? het volgende :

You can use gravitational slingshots to decelerate by doing the whole thing backwards. You approach the planet in the opposite direction that it’s orbiting the Sun. The transfer of momentum will slow down the spacecraft a significant amount, and speed up the planet an infinitesimal amount.

Dus slingshots kunnen juist óók gebruikt worden om af te remmen.

Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Geplaatst: Do Feb 25, 2016 7:50 pm
door Pilgrim
xplosive schreef:Dus slingshots kunnen juist óók gebruikt worden om af te remmen.

Ach ja, natuurlijk. De hemellichamen die om de zon of een andere ster draaien hebben natuurlijk al een flinke omloopsnelheid en die moet je natuurlijk meerekenen. Niettemin denk ik dat 10% van de lichtsnelheid zo enorm groot is dat je er eigenlijk geen gebruik van kan maken of het vaartuig moet eerst om andere redenen zijn afgeremd.

Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Geplaatst: Do Feb 25, 2016 9:04 pm
door xplosive
The "magsail" schijnt een ideale afremmer te zijn. Het probleem van afremmen schijnt dus allang te zijn opgelost, waardoor we daarbij geen vraagtekens hoeven te plaatsen of zorgen om hoeven te maken. Daarover meer in Braking Against a Stellar Wind

by PAUL GILSTER on MARCH 19, 2012

This morning I want to pick up on the ‘problem of arrival’ theme I began writing about on Friday, and we’ll look at interstellar deceleration issues a good bit this week. But I can’t let Monday start without reference to the Icarus results from Gran Sasso that finds neutrinos traveling at precisely the speed of light. All of this adds credence to the growing belief that the earlier Opera experiment was compromised by equipment problems. The news is all over the place (you might begin with this BBC account) and while we’ll keep an eye on it, I don’t plan to spend much time this week on neutrinos. We still have much to get done on the subject of slowing down.

Magsails and Local Resources

When you begin to unlock the deceleration issue, the options quickly multiply, and you find yourself looking into areas that weren’t remotely the subject of your earlier research. As we saw on Friday, the concept of magnetic sails grew organically out of Robert Bussard’s idea of an interstellar ramjet. Bussard didn’t want to slow down — he wanted to go very fast indeed. Read the comments on that post and you’ll find Al Jackson’s entertaining reminiscences of a dinner with Bussard (Tau Zero author Poul Anderson was present too), and a reminder that the scientist always claimed to have come upon the ramjet idea because of an encounter with Mexican food. The usual story has it that it was a burrito which, bitten down upon, suddenly opened for Bussard the splendors of matter being forced into a cylinder at high speeds.

Or maybe he was eating huevos rancheros — the story seems to have varied a bit over the years. Whatever the case, the idea of scooping up interstellar hydrogen and fusing it turned into a 1960 paper for Acta Astronautica and, along the way, into a critique by Robert Zubrin and Dana Andrews that showed just how much drag an electromagnetic scoop could generate. Andrews was working for Boeing at the time, and had grown interested in using Bussard concepts right here in the Solar System, thinking that a big enough scoop could gather hydrogen for use in an ion engine that could be powered up by an onboard nuclear reactor. A self-fueling ion drive might not be adaptable for interstellar missions, but for interplanetary work it seemed worth a look.

But the numbers were intractable. The magnetic scoop Andrews hoped to deploy created more drag than the ion engines produced thrust. The two researchers quickly found that the scoop’s best function was as a magnetic sail, and their work on the idea appeared in the literature in the early 1990s. In his 1999 book Entering Space, Zubrin recalls that the time was right for the magsail given that Paul Chu (University of Houston) had just invented the first high-temperature superconductors, which a magsail could theoretically use to create the magnetic field that would allow it to ride on the solar wind. Practical high-temperature superconducting wire born out of this work might one day allow magsails to achieve higher thrust-to-weight ratios than solar sails.

Magsails have clear propulsion implications, but Zubrin states the obvious about their most effective uses:

…the most interesting and important thing about the magsail is not what it can do to speed up a spacecraft — what’s important is its capability for slowing one down. The magsail is the ideal interstellar mission brake! No matter how fast a spaceship is going, all it has to do to stop is deploy and turn on a magsail, and the drag generated against the interstellar plasma will do the rest. Just as in the case of a parachute deployed by a drag racer, the faster the ship is going, the more ‘wind’ is felt, and the better it works.

Which takes us to the idea of using in-situ resources to tackle the deceleration problem. If your goal is to launch a starship that can decelerate in the destination system to explore it, the magsail lets you do the job without carrying the deceleration fuel aboard the vehicle. Play around with the numbers long enough and you’ll see what a huge boost this would be, for otherwise you’re carrying all the fuel needed to slow down a starship (moving, perhaps, at .10 c!), and that means you’ve got to get all of that fuel up to cruise in the first place. The idea of creating drag against the interstellar medium and a destination stellar wind thus has a powerful appeal.

Rise of the Superconductor

When Bussard studied how his ramjet could operate in a region of interstellar space where the density of hydrogen was roughly 1 hydrogen atom per cubic centimeter, he saw that he would need a collecting area of 10,000 square kilometers. This is so vast that even if it were made of 0.1-centimeter mylar, a physical scoop would weigh something on the order of 250,000 tons. But a much smaller collector generating a magnetic field seems practical given the advances in superconducting alluded to above, with a loop of superconducting wire deployed from the spacecraft, the current applied to it cycling continuously to generate the magnetic field. Here’s how Zubrin and Andrews described it in a paper based on their presentation at the 1990 Vision-21 symposium at NASA’s Lewis Research Center (now Glenn Research Center):

The magnetic sail, or Magsail, is a device which can be used to accelerate or decelerate a spacecraft by using a magnetic field to accelerate/deflect the plasma naturally found in the solar wind and interstellar medium. Its principle of operation is as follows: A loop of superconducting cable hundreds of kilometers in diameter is stored on a drum attached to a payload spacecraft. When the time comes for operation the cable is played out into space and a current is initiated in the loop. This current once initiated, will be maintained indefinitely in the superconductor without further power. The magnetic field created by the current will impart a hoop stress to the loop aiding the deployment and eventually forcing it to a rigid circular shape.

Thus the hybrid concept Andrews and Zubrin came up with in the Vision-21 work, extending ideas they had first presented in a 1988 paper: Use laser beaming technology to push a sail to interstellar cruise speeds, then deploy a magsail upon arrival to reduce deceleration time. The authors looked at the numbers and worked out 0.8 years for acceleration, 17.4 years of coasting at almost half the speed of light, and 18.8 years for deceleration. This gets you about 10 light years out in around 37 years, a mind-bending pace that uses a huge sail and some generous assumptions about laser power that we’ll look at tomorrow. For there are other ways to use lasers, even for deceleration, and other ways, too, to exploit the local interstellar medium.

Zubrin and Andrews’ paper from Vision-21 is “Use of Magnetic Sails for Advanced Exploration Missions,” in the proceedings of Vision-21: Space Travel for the Next Millennium” (NASA Conference Publication 10059. The citation for their 1988 work is given in yesterday’s Centauri Dreams post.

Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Geplaatst: Do Feb 25, 2016 9:29 pm
door Pilgrim
Tjonge, knap werk. Gefeliciteerd hoor! icon_thumbup.gif


Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Geplaatst: Za Mar 05, 2016 2:19 am
door Pilgrim
Follow the Salt: Search for Mars Life May Focus on Driest Regions

By Charles Q. Choi, Contributor | February 16, 2016

If life ever existed on Mars, its last outposts near the Red Planet's surface might have been in very salty environments, new research shows.

This premise might help guide where future rovers land to look for signs of past or present Mars life, scientists say.

The idea that Mars may have once hosted life is rooted in plentiful evidence suggesting that rivers, lakes and seas covered the Red Planet billions of years ago. Because there is life virtually everywhere there is liquid water on Earth, some researchers have suggested that life might have evolved on Mars when it was wet, and that life could perhaps survive on the planet even now. [The Search for Life on Mars: A Photo Timeline]

Currently, the search for signs of possible life on Mars is mostly focused on ancient wet habitats. However, researchers now suggest that future missions to Mars might also want to consider drier places that past Martian life might have inhabited.

Although Mars might once have possessed lots of water on its surface, it dried over time, and is now an extremely arid planet. In the new study, scientists reason that ancient Martian microbes might have colonized the land just as life did on Earth, and then adapted to the Red Planet's increasing aridity.

To reconstruct how ancient Martian life might have evolved to survive the drying of Mars, scientists investigated adaptations to aridity on Earth. They found that "there is a predictable sequence of how organisms adapt to increasing dryness," said study co-author Dirk Schulze-Makuch, an astrobiologist at Washington State University in Pullman.

In Earth's arid regions, many organisms can dry up without dying and can resume life quickly after rehydration, even after years of complete desiccation. Biological soil crusts made of relatively complex communities of microbes can cover up to 70 percent of the surfaces of some deserts, the researchers said.

Sampling at Site Maria Elena in Chile's extremely arid Atacama Desert. Dirk Schulze-Makuch is at left, and Alfonso Davila is on the right. Credit: Dirk Schulze-Makuch

However, a dramatic change is seen when a region shifts from arid to hyperarid. Biological soil crusts become increasingly fragmented or patchy, and there is a significant decline in microbes' abundance and diversity. Instead, microbes in hyperarid areas are usually lithobiontic — that is, they colonize either the surface, underside or interior of rocks, the researchers said.

In the driest regions of the Earth, relatively complex and abundant communities of microbes can still survive inside porous crusts made of salt. These crusts are hygroscopic — in other words, they tend to absorb moisture directly from the air, the researchers said.

The researchers suggested that, as Mars dried, microbes eventually might have evolved to subsist on atmospheric moisture. Liquid brines within salt crusts might have served as the last available habitats for life near the Martian surface, Schulze-Makuch said.

"The last near-surface life on Mars would most likely be associated with salts," Schulze-Makuch told

The scientists suggested that these refuges may have disappeared only recently — or may still exist. As such, future missions to Mars may want to analyze salty rocks, he said.

Schulze-Makuch noted that it's also possible that life survived deep underground on Mars, "such as within lava-tube caves".

Schulze-Makuch and his colleague Alfonso Davila at the SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) Institute in Mountain View, California, detailed their findings online Feb. 2 in the journal Astrobiology. ... gions.html

Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Geplaatst: Zo Mar 06, 2016 7:32 pm
door Ali Yas

Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Geplaatst: Zo Mar 06, 2016 8:02 pm
door Pilgrim

Mars heeft toch nog wel wat zwaartekracht en ik heb onlangs nog gelezen dat een zwaartekracht van ca. een derde of nog wat minder dan dat van de aarde al voldoende is om die botontkalking grotendeels te voorkomen. Ook las ik over een nieuwe ontdekking dat met vibrerende platen, die je iedere dag een klein tijdje onder je voeten moet houden, de spierafbraak teniet gedaan kan worden.


Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Geplaatst: Di Mar 08, 2016 12:51 am
door Pilgrim
Vroege geschiedenis van Mars verliep heel anders dan gedacht

4 maart 2016 door Olaf van Kooten


Het vulkanische Tharsis-bassin heeft 3,5 miljard jaar geleden zoveel lava uitgespuugd, dat als gevolg van het gewicht de complete buitenlaag van Mars is verschoven, zo blijkt uit onderzoek. Als iets degelijks op aarde zou gebeuren, zou heel Nederland plotseling binnen de poolcirkel liggen.

De vulkanische periode duurde honderden miljoenen jaren en heeft een plateau gecreëerd van 5000 vierkante kilometer groot en 12 kilometer dik. Deze uitstulping aan het oppervlak van de planeet weegt miljarden keer miljarden tonnen. Hierdoor werd het evenwicht van de planeet verstoord en is de complete korst gaan verschuiven – in totaal zo’n 20 tot 25 graden! We hebben het voor de duidelijkheid niet over het verschuiven van de rotatie-as. Nee, het hele oppervlak is in zijn geheel gaan schuiven! In 2010 had een studie al uitgewezen dat Mars zou gaan kantelen als je de Tharsis-koepel op magische wijze zou verwijderen.

Het kantelen van Mars vormt een verklaring voor een aantal raadsels, zoals de locatie en vroegere stroomrichting van de rivieren op de Rode Planeet. Als je het verschuiven van de korst in ogenschouw neemt, dan blijken alle rivieren te zijn uitgelijnd in dezelfde tropische band. Vanaf hier hebben de rivieren noordwaards gestroomd en wellicht een aantal zeeën gevuld. De betrokken onderzoekers vermoeden dat die rivieren tegelijk met Tharsis zijn ontstaan – zo’n vier miljard jaar geleden.

Verder kan het verschuiven van het oppervlak een verklaring vormen voor de onlogische locatie van ondergrondse ijspaketten die in het laatste decennium gevonden zijn. Vroeger bevonden die locaties zich aan de polen! Een opmerkelijk gevolg van dit alles is dat Mars wellicht helemaal geen uitgestrekte oceanen gehad heeft.

This is what the planet Mars must have looked like 4 billion years ago, according to this new study. The poles were in a different position, precipitation in a south tropical band resulted in river networks, and active volcanoes enabled the Tharsis dome to grow, tilting the Martian surface after fluvial activity ended (3.5 billion years ago).

De geschiedenis van de Rode Planeet begint nu langzaam duidelijk te worden. Rond 4 miljard jaar geleden had Mars een dikke dampkring en een actieve hydrosfeer, mede dankzij het Tharsis-complex. De rivieren bevonden zich allemaal in dezelfde band en stroomden allemaal in dezelfde richting, alwaar wellicht meren en zeeën gevormd werden. Toen ging het mis: het oppervlak ging schuiven en het Tharsis-complex (waaronder Olympus Mons, de hoogste berg in het zonnestelsel) doofde uit.

Niet lang daarna raakte de planeet stijfbevroren en gortdroog als gevolg van het langzame verdwijnen van de dampkring, als gevolg van het uitschakelen van het magnetische veld. Waarom dit magnetische veld is verdwenen is nog een raadsel, maar het verschuiven van de korst heeft hier wellicht mee te maken. Sindsdien kan vloeibaar water alleen nog bij een grote inslag massaal (en tijdelijk) over het oppervlak stromen.

Het volledige onderzoek kan hier ingezien worden.

Bron: Centre national de la recherche scientifique ... n-gedacht/

Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Geplaatst: Za Mar 12, 2016 1:40 am
door Pilgrim
Nederlanders oogsten tomaten en radijsjes van 'Martiaanse grond'

Caroline Kraaijvanger, 9 maart 2016

Terwijl heel Nederland in de weer is met moestuintjes van een bekende supermarkt, oogsten ze in Wageningen tomaten en ander lekkers van ‘Martiaanse’ grond.

Onderzoekers van de universiteit van Wageningen hebben maar liefst tien verschillende gewassen groot weten te brengen op grond die sterk lijkt op de grond op Mars en de grond op de maan. Onder meer tomaten, erwten, radijsjes en tuinkers gedijden prima op de grond.

In de kas
De onderzoekers verbouwden de gewassen in grond die door NASA was verstrekt. Het gaat om grond die sterk lijkt op de grond op Mars (oorspronkelijk afkomstig van een vulkaan op Hawaii) en grond die sterk lijkt op de grond op de maan (oorspronkelijk afkomstig uit een woestijn in Arizona). Ook werden gewassen verbouwd op aardse grond om een vergelijking te kunnen maken. Alle gewassen werden in een kas geplaatst en aan constante temperaturen, vochtigheid, licht en een aardse atmosfeer blootgesteld. “Dat hebben we gedaan, omdat we verwachten dat de eerste gewassen die op Mars en de maan worden verbouwd zich in ondergrondse kamers bevinden om beschermd te zijn tegen onder meer kosmische straling,” vertelt onderzoeker Wieger Wamelink.

Het experiment begon in april vorig jaar en in oktober vorig jaar werd de laatste oogst binnengehaald. De resultaten zijn indrukwekkend. De totale hoeveelheid biomassa die de onderzoekers boven de ‘Martiaanse grond’ produceerden, was praktisch vergelijkbaar met de biomassa die boven de aardse grond werd geproduceerd. “Dat was echt een verrassing voor ons,” vertelt Wamelink. “Het laat zien dat de gesimuleerde Martiaanse grond grote mogelijkheden biedt als je deze goed voorbereid en water geeft.”

De biomassa op de gesimuleerde maangrond viel een beetje tegen en was veel kleiner dan die op de Martiaanse en aardse grond. Maar dat is nog altijd beter dan tijdens een eerder experiment van Wageningen University. Het is namelijk niet de eerste keer dat de onderzoekers gewassen proberen te verbouwen op grond die lijkt op grond op Mars en de maan. Dat probeerden ze al eens eerder en toen gingen de meeste planten op de gesimuleerde maangrond dood.

Ruimte voor verbetering
Er zijn dan ook enkele maatregelen getroffen om betere resultaten te behalen, zo vertelt Wamelink. Zo werd er aan de gesimuleerde Mars- en maangrond dit keer bijvoorbeeld organisch materiaal (vers gesneden gras) toegevoegd. En dat hielp.

De onderzoekers willen later dit jaar opnieuw aan de slag met gewassen op gesimuleerde Mars- en maangrond. Tijdens dit onderzoek – dat afhankelijk is van crowdfunding – zal dieper ingegaan worden op de voedselkwaliteit. Want, hoe lekker de tomaatjes en radijsjes van de gesimuleerde Mars- en maangrond er ook uitzien; de onderzoekers hebben er niet van gegeten. “De grond bevat zware metalen zoals lood, arsenicum en kwik en ook veel ijzer.” Het is zomaar mogelijk dat de planten deze stoffen opnemen en zo giftig worden. “Meer onderzoek hiernaar is nodig.” ... otst-mars/

Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Geplaatst: Za Mar 12, 2016 1:53 am
door xplosive
Het lijkt erop dat de Chinezen de rode planeet nóg roder willen maken. Het wordt straks misschien nog druk op Mars :

China Plans to Send A Rover To Mars In 2021

By Katrina Pascual, Tech Times | March 9, 1:00 AM

Following a failed joint mission with Russia in 2011, China is eyeing to launch a Mars exploration in 2020 as an independent probe of the Red Planet, a top national political adviser and space scientist says.

The China mission is expected to reach the planet in 2021 after a flight of up to 10 months, announced Ye Peijian Friday in Beijing during an annual session of the country’s political advisory body.

"Consensus has been reached among policymakers and leading scientists," he said in a China Daily report.

The country’s planned Mars landing will coincide with the 100th anniversary of the Communist Party of China’s founding and will occur a decade after the failed joint mission, where the Russian launch vehicle that carried Yinghuo-1 crashed into the Pacific. The United States, India, Russia, and the European Union afterwards stole the march.

The Mars probe is one of the 10 major orders that China’s next-generation heavy lift rocket, called Long March 5, has received. This was revealed by China Aerospace Science and Technology Corp., which serves as the main contractor of its national space missions.

Its structure and size will be similar to but will have distinct differences from Chang’e-3, which is China’s first lunar lander launched in 2013.

Back in November 2015, China also unveiled a model of its orbiter as well as landing rover at the China International Industry Fair held in Shanghai.

Research and preparations are now underway to set the communications between Earth and the Mars rover, and to manage the extreme environments on the destination planet.

Ye as well as other Chinese scientists have been lobbying for an independent Mars exploration project for the last few years now. The Chang’e-3 program’s chief scientist added, too, that the Chinese government has not approved the plan to send its astronauts to the moon.

On the other hand, the Chang’e-5 lunar mission is poised to bring soil from the moon in 2017, while the core module of the anticipated space station will be unveiled in 2020.

Renowned American astronaut Dr. Buzz Aldrin said in February that humans will successfully reach Mars by 2040 — a “very realistic” plan, although staying on the planet is an altogether different story. He called for international collaboration to make the manned Mars mission happen.

Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Geplaatst: Za Mar 19, 2016 12:54 am
door Pilgrim
Mars One: Crews Won't Know When, Or If, Red Planet Trip Will Happen

By Michael Gardiner, Wed, 03/16/2016

Bas Lansdorp, co-founder and CEO of Mars One, the private venture to establish an outpost on Mars, revealed the general crew training timeline of the expedition during a presentation at SXSW. Lansdorp plans to expand the outpost by sending multiple teams on one-way trips to Mars, financing it by leveraging the media licensing rights.

The crews will be prepared over the course of a decade but because the mission crew can decide not to go at the last minute, backup crews will be kept in the dark until the mission crew is already on their way.

To train the crews, Lansdorp said there’ll be team challenges, with initially three to six teams of four person going into testing facilities

“[We will] build a copy of this Mars outpost here on earth. Each of these teams will be hired full time to train for the mission for 10 years and each year, they’ll be locked up in the simulation outpost, at least once, for an undetermined period of time,” Lansdorp said. “So when they go in, they have no idea if they’ll be in for 15 minutes or the whole year. Because on Mars there’s no countdown.”

According to Lansdorp, Mars One will find the right teams over the 10-year period before the first manned mission is planned to launch. As teams drop out, Lansdorp said Mars One will repeat the selection process every year, so that the number of teams in training will grow to 10-15 by 2026.

“And on Earth, we’ll give em hell. Everything will go wrong. So after they’ve been in for three months, and everything has already been going wrong — the life support system breaks in the middle of the night,” Lansdorp said. “So they wake up, fix the life support system, or they’ll suffocate, then they go to bed. They have about half an hour of sleep before they have to wake up. They wake up, and the toilets in the outpost are broken and there’s a huge smell.”

Unfortunately, when the floor was opened for questions, the presentation’s audience members failed to ask Lansdorp if he had seen The Truman Show. ... pen-519979

Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Geplaatst: Wo Mar 23, 2016 3:35 pm
door Pilgrim
A Little 3-D Printer on the ISS Is a Huge Step for Space Exploration

Madison Kotack, date of Publication: 03.22.16

When humans depart from Earth to set up the first planetary colony, they’ll have to travel light. Seeds, water, and tools might secure a spot on the cargo ship. But but everything else will have to be built from extraterrestrial materials. The question is, how?

Made In Space might have an answer. Today, NASA will send a resupply mission to the International Space Station carrying a high-tech 3-D printer and feedstock from the microgravity tech company. Voila: the first off-world manufacturing facility. The Cygnus spacecraft carrying the printer will launch from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida at 11:05 pm Eastern time. (Come back here to watch the launch live later.)

Back in 2014, Made In Space sent their first small, experimental printer up to the ISS. Since then, they’ve tweaked their design to print a wider variety of hardware and with more materials (30 at last count, though only three types of plastic will go up today). Now, NASA and the US National Laboratory will use the updated Additive Manufacturing Facility to print aerospace grade goods on-station. Imagine the possibilities—need an extra wrench to fix that damn space toilet? No problem, print one. Rogue orbital debris punched a hole in your satellite? Mission control will send the missing component’s digital file to the printer in a matter of hours. It’s like the ISS just got a local hardware store.

“Space exploration is a lot like a camping trip—if something goes wrong or there’s an emergency, you’ve got to go home to fix it,” says Jason Dunn, Chief Technology Officer and co-founder of Made In Space. “3-D printing will allow independence from Earth.”

It’ll also save hundreds of thousands of launch dollars. “Raw materials pack down way tighter than built-out objects,” says Dunn, so long-term, a printer cuts down on the number of necessary resupply missions. The printer’s raw plastic also handles the physical stress of takeoff better than pre-built parts; Earth-made objects need heavy reinforcements that prevent them from vibrating too much. Losing those additions can cut weight by up to 30 percent.

3-D printing will open up all kinds of space-related R&D opportunities that were restricted by size and weight until now. “With an onboard printer, you can build things you could never deliver—like an antenna the length of a football field that supplies broadband Internet to the whole world,” says Spencer Pitman, Made In Space’s Head of Product Strategy.

The Zero-Gravity 3-D Printer. Made In Space, Inc.

That’s how 3-D printing will help make life easier up in space. But it’ll also help scientists back on Earth. NASA researchers, medical universities, and tech institutes often need to experiment in microgravity—that’s how they build everything from better ISS exercise machines to tools that let crew members catch small floating objects more easily. The problem? “There’s currently no way to achieve extended microgravity on Earth,” says Dunn.

On Earth, researchers can create low gravity with drop towers or parabolic flight. Drop towers are the most accessible, providing brief seconds of weightlessness to an object that’s catapulted up a tall airless shaft. Parabolic flights achieve free fall weightlessness for about 20 seconds by charging an airbus full speed into the sky, then throttling its engines to zero.

But neither drop towers nor parabolic flights are great for testing complex microgravity scenarios, like large-scale docking maneuvers or terrestrial landing techniques. And getting those experiments to the ISS lab is pricey. “The huge cost of getting projects to space is a bottleneck for most researchers,” Dunn says. “That’s where this printer comes in.”

The manufacturing facility is available to any individual or business hoping to test their hardware in microgravity (if they’re willing to fork over $6,000 to $30,000 a print, that is). Made In Space already has orders for medical devices, communication arrays, and even artwork—all of which will be put into functional use right away or stored in Ziploc bags for later. (Seriously.)

Implementing this facility is the first step towards making 3-D printing an institutionalized part of space exploration, like launching is today. Made In Space is already working on a zero-gravity material recycler that’ll turn old prints into fresh feedstock for the printer (which could make the ISS less dependent on raw material resupply) and a robotics platform called Archinaut, which will autonomously assemble huge astro-structures. “Soon, satellites will be built onboard like they’re Lego sets,” says Pitman.

One day, an additive manufacturing facility like this might help us colonize other planets. “Whether you’re on Mars or the ISS, you don’t want to have to wait for something to be sent to you,” says NASA spokesperson Tracy McMahon. “The more you’re able to build where you are, the better off you’ll be.” Planetary pilgrims could 3-D print tools to mine extraterrestrial soil, and use that material to manufacture pre-fab homes and other critical infrastructure. Scotty may not be able to beam up humans yet—but hardware is a good start. ... ploration/

Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Geplaatst: Vr Mar 25, 2016 2:58 am
door Pilgrim
NASA: Mars Colony 'a Long Way Down the Road'

Mar 24, 2016 12:40 PM ET // by Mike Wall,

The first NASA astronauts to set foot on Mars will aim to establish a research-and-operations base, not a permanently inhabited colony, agency officials say.

According to NASA's current plans, the Mars outpost — which NASA hopes to set up by the end of the 2030s — will serve as a hub that accommodates astronauts on a temporary basis, said Ben Bussey, the chief exploration scientist in NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate.


A colony is "a long way down the road. No one's thinking of, on the NASA side, like a permanent human base," Bussey said Wednesday (March 16) during a presentation with the space agency's Future In-Space Operations (FISO) working group. [Red Planet or Bust: 5 Crewed Mars Mission Ideas]

"The idea here is that you would have your exploration zone that you set up for the first crew," Bussey added. "And that crew would leave, and then you send another crew at the next good launch opportunity. So it isn't permanently occupied, but it is visited multiple times."

A permanently occupied Mars settlement may eventually grow out of NASA's crewed activities. But for several other organizations, a Red Planet colony is the explicit goal.

NEWS: Musk: SpaceX Making 'Progress' Toward Mars Colony

One of these groups is SpaceX, the American spaceflight company founded in 2002 by billionaire entrepreneur Elon Musk. Musk has stressed many times over the years that he established SpaceX primarily to help make humanity a multiplanet species.

Musk envisions thousands of people living on the Red Planet in the not-too-distant future. The key to making this happen, he has said, is to develop fully and rapidly reusable rockets, which could slash the cost of spaceflight by a factor of 100 or more.

So SpaceX has been conducting a series of increasingly ambitious reusable-rocket tests over the past few years. For example, the company has repeatedly attempted to land the first stage of its Falcon 9 rocket back on Earth during launches.

ANALYSIS: Elon Musk Explores Internet for Mars Colonies

Most of these tries have been near misses. On multiple occasions, the rocket stage successfully hit the deck of its target "autonomous spaceport drone ship" in the ocean but ended up toppling over and exploding. But a Falcon 9 stage did land softly on terra firma at Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Station this past December — the first time this had ever been done during an orbital launch. (Blue Origin, the spaceflight company established by founder Jeff Bezos, has also pulled off rocket landings, but so far, only during suborbital launches.)

The Netherlands-based nonprofit Mars One is also shooting for a Red Planet colony. The group aims to land four pioneers on Mars in 2027 and then send more settlers every two years thereafter. (There are no plans at the moment to bring anyone back to Earth.) Mars One aims to pay for these activities by staging a global media event around the colonization process. ... 160324.htm

Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Geplaatst: Vr Mar 25, 2016 4:18 pm
door Pilgrim
NASA and SpaceX to Colonize the Moon in 7 years

By Anthony Cerullo - March 24, 2016

Trips to Mars have taken up the majority of space news lately, but that was just a front for what’s really going on. Underneath the tangled web of rumours, NASA and SpaceX have been cooking up a plan to colonise the Moon in just seven years.

Now that we know the Moon isn’t made of cheese, many are probably thinking why even go there? We haven’t been since 1972 and for good reason. It’s expensive and pretty much a completely worthless piece of rock. The interest, however, isn’t on the moon itself, but more on the process of colonising it. The lessons learnt and the technology developed will serve as a blueprint for colonising Mars and other planets in the future. Setting up shop on Mars won’t happen in the next decade, but it’s quite possible NASA will have one close to Earth very soon.

Although The U.S government has raised funding for NASA lately, they are still far from wealthy. A trip to the moon costs $150 billion dollars today and the agency’s budget is just $19 billion for 2016. However, that is only if they do things the old way. New developments and new friendships have driven down the cost significantly. According to research, NASA will call on SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy for their lunar voyage. Privatized space programs like SpaceX are becoming increasingly popular and they have the money to help out government programs. NASA is looking at SpaceX’s reusable Falcon 9 rocket to help deliver supplies to the colony. If this relationship proves to be an ongoing success, we could see SpaceX become an intricate part of getting to Mars.

According to research, the moon colony would be able to house ten people for up to a year. After just a decade, the base is expected to become a self-sufficient settlement of 100 people. Shipping and growing food up there will surely be a challenge, but they have that figured out. Food and supplies that can not be produced in spaced will be 3D printed. This will greatly save on costs and overall convenience. The future looks bright for space living. Should this work, life on Mars will be more than just a David Bowie song. ... nize-moon/

Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Geplaatst: Vr Apr 01, 2016 11:18 pm
door Pilgrim
Mars Colonization: How Plausible Are Elon Musk's Goals With SpaceX?

By Tyler MacDonald | Mar 31, 2016

SpaceX's goal of bringing humans to Mars by 2025 has many doubting its ability to pull off such a feat as a private venture.

Just how plausible are Elon Musk's plans to send people to Mars by 2025? The SpaceX founder and CEO's bold claims have stirred up some controversy and despite the manufacturer's quick rise in the field, many think that his bold Mars colonization goals are simply not possible.

Back in November, astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson suggested that those who believe that a private enterprise - such as SpaceX - could send people to Mars alone are deluding themselves.

"The delusion is thinking that SpaceX is going to lead the space frontier," he said. "That's just not going to happen, and it's not going to happen for three really good reasons: One, it is very expensive. Two, it is very dangerous to do it first. Three, there is essentially no return on that investment that you've put in for having done it first."

These reasons support the notion that interplanetary spaceflight is just too risky to make any sense as a private venture.

"A government has a much longer horizon over which it can make investments," Tyson said.

Despite some suggesting that Musk and SpaceX could pull off a mission to Mars without NASA support by utilizing cash raised from a SpaceX IPO, Musk doesn't seem to be planning anything like this anytime soon.

"When we're doing regular flights to Mars, that might be a good time to go public," he said. "But before then, because the long-term goals of SpaceX are really long term - it takes a long time to build a city on Mars - that doesn't match with the short-term time frame of public shareholders and portfolio managers that are looking at the two- to four-year time horizon."

Musk still claims to be able to send humans to Mars by 2025 if the money is available, but NASA doesn't plan to go to Mars and its moons by the 2030s. But does Musk really need to follow NASA's Mars timeline?

"These non-trivial resources allow an individual to shift their own paradigms to suit their whims independent of usual norms," said Keith Cowing of NASA Watch. "In Musk's case - that whim is the exploration of Mars. Deal with it, Neil."

Others, such as Mars Society's Robert Zubrin, claim that Musk has been planning on utilizing NASA involvement all along.

"Despite his public statements, Musk isn't going to fund humans to Mars out of his own pocket," he said. "But what he will do - is in fact already doing - is create the hardware set that will lower the cost threshold for sending humans to Mars so much that, sooner or later, a president will go for it. In that case, SpaceX will get the business - they will have earned it, and in any case, they'll be the only game in town." ... spacex.htm

Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Geplaatst: Wo Apr 06, 2016 11:11 am
door Pilgrim
Musk thinks “Humanity must colonize Mars before next World War – Allentown Daily Health

Elon Musk is bullish on humanity’s chances of getting to Mars and even building a city there someday, but he is not super confident about our odds here on Earth.

Musk believe any nuclear war wreck our Earth
According to Musk, any nuclear attack would wreck havoc with Earth in ways we’ve never witnessed before. It could also damage space technology to the extent it could set us back decades. As a result, he feels that:

“I don’t think we can discount the possibility of a third World War. In 1912, they were proclaiming a new age of peace and prosperity ... and then you had World War I followed by World War II followed by the Cold War. Perhaps there’s a complacency and arrogance in assuming this won’t happen again.”

And, although we really, really don’t want to entertain the thought of a global war, the threat is real. Russian military analyst Pavel Felgenhauer has said a nuclear war is “likely” following Turkey shooting a Russian jet.

“It would be, I think sort of immoral not to [colonise Mars], if it meant preservation of life on Earth as we know it.”

Making it happen
Colonizing Mars won’t be easy, but humanity can do it with a few key technological advances, Elon Musk said. Chief among them are fully and rapidly reusable rockets, and the ability to produce rocket propellant from local materials on the Red Planet.

Currently, rockets are used just once and then ditched into the ocean. That means a lot of money is sinking to the ocean floor after every launch.

For example, SpaceX’s Falcon 9 rocket costs about $16 million to build, but the fuel for each of the booster’s liftoffs costs just $200,000, Musk said Tuesday. So finding a way to fly rockets again and again has the potential to slash the cost of spaceflight by a factor of 100, he added.

SpaceX is working hard to do just that. The company has tried twice this year to land a Falcon 9 first stage on an “autonomous drone ship” in the Atlantic Ocean during orbital launches. Both attempts, which occurred in January and April, were near misses; the rocket stage hit the target but ended up toppling and exploding on the ship’s deck.

SpaceX will try again soon to bring a Falcon 9 first stage back down for a soft landing — this time, perhaps on land at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida, Musk said recently.

Mars life?
Mars colonization could be complicated by the discovery of indigenous life forms on the surface, Musk said Tuesday; in such a case, scientists and decision makers would have to make sure Red Planet pioneers tread as carefully as possible.

But Musk doesn’t think such planetary-protection concerns will end up being a major issue.

“It really doesn’t seem like there’s any life on Mars, on the surface at least,” Musk said here Tuesday. “We’re not seeing any sign of that.”

The Martian underground is more hospitable, since any life forms there would be protected from the harsh radiation environment and cold temperatures encountered on the surface, he added. But Musk doesn’t think subsurface life would or should derail Red Planet colonization.

“I think anything we do on the surface is really not going to have a big impact on the subterranean life,” he said.

Musk hopes to be a key player in the spread of humanity to another planet, but he doesn’t expect to be around to see the full fruits of his labor. ... 14391.html

Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Geplaatst: Vr Apr 08, 2016 12:54 am
door Ariel
'Jaar in de ruimte schadelijk voor lichaam'

HOUSTON - Astronaut worden mag dan voor veel mensen een jongensdroom zijn, het is niet gemakkelijk om langdurig in de ruimte te zijn. De Amerikaanse astronaut Scot Kelly, die in maart na een vol jaar terugkeerde uit het internationale ruimtestation ISS, zegt dat de gevolgen voor zijn lichaam ingrijpend zijn.

,,Terwijl ik in de ruimte was raakten mijn botten aangetast, mijn spieren kwijnden weg en mijn bloed herverdeelde zich door mijn lijf, wat druk op mijn hart veroorzaakte'', citeert de Britse krant The Independent de astronaut. ,,Elke dag werd ik blootgesteld aan tien maal de straling die iemand op aarde ervaart, waardoor ik voor de rest van mijn leven een hoger risico op kanker loop.''

Scot sprak zich bij het verlaten van de ruimtestation ook al uit over de keerzijde van de jongensdroom. ,,Het moeilijkste is de isolatie in lichamelijke zin van de mensen op aarde die belangrijk voor je zijn.''

Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Geplaatst: Vr Apr 08, 2016 1:30 am
door Pilgrim
Je krijgt inderdaad een verhoogde kans op kanker door een langdurig verblijf in de ruimte. Ongeveer 1%!

Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Geplaatst: Vr Apr 08, 2016 9:12 am
door xplosive
Pilgrim schreef:Je krijgt inderdaad een verhoogde kans op kanker door een langdurig verblijf in de ruimte. Ongeveer 1%!

Daarmee is roken in dat opzicht vele malen schadelijker. Hier staat :

Als niemand meer rookt, zal het aantal gevallen van kanker met 20 tot 30 procent afnemen.

Dat is nog wel even wat anders dan dat ene procentje. Het is altijd goed om dit soort risico's in de juiste relativerende verhouding te zien.

Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Geplaatst: Vr Apr 08, 2016 6:00 pm
door Ali Yas
Pilgrim schreef:Je krijgt inderdaad een verhoogde kans op kanker door een langdurig verblijf in de ruimte. Ongeveer 1%!

Hoe kom je bij dit cijfer? En geldt dat ook buiten het beschermende magnetische veld van de Aarde?

Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Geplaatst: Vr Apr 08, 2016 6:16 pm
door Pilgrim
Zubrin vertelde dat tijdens een conventie van de Mars Society. Dat geldt natuurlijk voorbij het magnetische veld van de aarde omdat het ging over een expeditie naar Mars.

Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Geplaatst: Vr Apr 08, 2016 7:36 pm
door Ali Yas
Ik geloof hem niet. Al was het maar omdat cijfers ontbreken: mensen in de ruimte zitten altijd binnen de bescherming van het magnetisch veld. Behalve de maanwandelaars, maar die waren hooguit een paar dagen 'buiten'.

Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Geplaatst: Vr Apr 08, 2016 8:45 pm
door xplosive
In Mars-Bound Astronauts Could Face Higher Risk of Cancer staat :

Zeitlin and his colleagues estimate that astronauts would be exposed to about 0.66 Sievert (Sv) — the unit scientists use for measuring radiation — of galactic cosmic ray radiation during the round-trip to Mars, not including their time spent on the surface of the Red Planet. About 1 Sv of radiation exposure is usually associated with about a 5 percent bump in fatal-cancer risk later in life.

Heen en terug naar Mars (a round-trip) levert dus 0,66 Sievert aan extra blootstelling op, hetgeen neerkomt op 0,33 Sievert enkele reis, terwijl 1 Sievert de kans op kanker met 5 procent verhoogt. Een enkele reis naar Mars zou dan dus de kans op kanker met 1,67 % verhogen. Zubrin zit er dus blijkbaar niet ver naast.

Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Geplaatst: Za Apr 09, 2016 8:56 am
door Ali Yas
xplosive schreef:Zubrin zit er dus blijkbaar niet ver naast.

Nou... Hij rondt wel vrolijk naar beneden af én hij doet net of het op Mars koek en ei is wat de straling betreft (wat niet zo is: Mars heeft geen magnetisch veld).

Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Geplaatst: Za Apr 09, 2016 10:59 am
door xplosive
Ali Yas schreef:én hij doet net of het op Mars koek en ei is wat de straling betreft

Waar doet Zubrin dat?