xplosive schreef:Ali Yas schreef:én hij doet net of het op Mars koek en ei is wat de straling betreft
Waar doet Zubrin dat?
Nou, niet met zoveel woorden, maar door 1% te kiezen komt het daar wel op neer.
xplosive schreef:Ali Yas schreef:én hij doet net of het op Mars koek en ei is wat de straling betreft
Waar doet Zubrin dat?
Ali Yas schreef:xplosive schreef:Ali Yas schreef:én hij doet net of het op Mars koek en ei is wat de straling betreft
Waar doet Zubrin dat?
Nou, niet met zoveel woorden, maar door 1% te kiezen komt het daar wel op neer.
Ali Yas schreef:Pilgrim schreef:Uit dit artikel bleek al eerder dat de straling op Mars voor mensen acceptabel is.
O ja? Het stralingsniveau is wel 100 keer hoger dan op Aarde.
xplosive schreef:In ieder geval leek het mij niet de bedoeling dat mensen de hele dag onbeschermd op Mars rond zouden lopen en dat ze in plaats daarvan juist verreweg het grootste deel van de dag in beschermde woonomgevingen zouden verblijven. Altijd goed om te doen : "check your facts".
xplosive schreef:Hoe dan ook lijkt een reis van mensen naar Mars met daarna een succesvol levensvatbaar verblijf van diezelfde mensen op Mars gedurende een reeks van decennia in een vooraf door robots goed opgezette woonomgeving haalbaar.
In een verdere toekomst kan er wellicht een kunstmatig magnetisch veld op Mars ontwikkeld worden en een dikkere dampkring.
SpaceX has delivered an inflatable bedroom for astronauts to the International Space Station.
The soft compartment is the first of its kind to go into space. But it could be far from the last: its makers hope that it will allow for inflatable habits on Mars, revolutionising the way that astronauts live on space.
The company that made the small room, Bigelow Aerospace, hopes that within four years it can launch inflatable space stations made with the same technology that can then be leased out to commercial companies.
The Bigelow Expandable Activity Module — BEAM for short — is able to be packed into much smaller spaces than traditional habitats. The room that went up to the ISS was packed tightly — but when it is blown up it will be as big as a small bedroom.
The inflatable room arrived on a SpaceX Dragon cargo ship that arrived at the International Space Station over the weekend. It was grabbed by a robotic arm on board the station.
It will soon be attached to the space station, before it gets inflated in May. But it will mostly go left untouched by the six-man ISS crew while it is being tested, apart from occasional trips to take measurements and swap sensors.
The delivery is the first that SpaceX has made for Nasa since a launch accident last year. Since June, the company has stopped its usual business of transporting supplies on the two-day, 250-mile journey to the ISS.
That meant that SpaceX headquarters was especially excited when the robot arm caught the Dragon capsule and attached it to the station.
"It looks like we caught a Dragon," announced British astronaut Timothy Peake, who made the grab. "There are smiles all around here," NASA's Mission Control replied. "Nice job capturing that Dragon."
That success was even more notable given that the company had landed its booster on a floating platform for the first time. The company has been trying repeatedly to do so — a move that will allow it to make re-usable rockets and make substantial savings on missions — but has been plagued by problems including the rockets falling over on landing.
SpaceX, That Vision Thing, and Mars
Safely landing a first-stage rocket on a ship opens up "cheap" orbital space, but also shows a path to Mars
By Caleb A. Scharf on April 11, 2016
For a few minutes on the afternoon of Friday April 8th 2016 millions of eyes were focused on Cape Canaveral in Florida, and shortly afterwards on a remote 'drone' barge a couple of hundred miles downrange in a choppy Atlantic Ocean.
The cause of all this attention was SpaceX's launch of a heavy payload to space, with a later rendezvous with the International Space Station, and a critical attempt to return the 1st stage booster rocket safely to Earth.
As reported by pretty much every media outlet across the planet, the Falcon 9 made a gloriously easy-looking powered return and landing on SpaceX's drone ship.
So what's the big deal?
First, getting the biggest and costliest piece of launch hardware back in one piece offers the possibility of reusing it and lowering the expense of reaching space. Back in December 2015, SpaceX had already got a Falcon 9 booster to return to within shouting distance of where it had launched from some ten minutes earlier - on a neighboring pad at Cape Canaveral.
Although it remains to be seen how well these rockets hold up to refurbishment and relaunch, the basic idea is sound. Reuse means drastically lower launch costs in the long run. It might cost $60 million to build one of SpaceX's boosters, but only a few hundred thousand dollars to refuel it. Even if making it flight-worthy again costs several million dollars of engineering tinkering and fixing, that's still an enormous saving.
Except, at least half of the expected launch trajectories from the Cape involve heading over the Atlantic for a distance that makes it infeasible to get back to land in Florida. The boosters simply can't carry enough fuel to turn around and come back.
Hence the ocean-going drone ships (with names like 'Of Course I Still Love You', and 'Just Read the Instructions', lifted from Iain M. Banks novels). These mobile landing sites can chug out to open water to be in exactly the right spot for the rocket to fall back towards from the arc of its launch trajectory, even if hundreds of miles offshore in the Atlantic.
With a successful landing out in the ocean, SpaceX is on its way to covering all the options, so that all launches can involve a gentle booster recovery and huge cost-savings.
And that's where the vision thing comes in.
As Elon Musk and many others have long stated, dropping the cost per-unit-mass of launching to space is critical if our species is going to explore and utilize the solar system. It's also the key to ensuring our long-term survival.
Even if we became model stewards of the Earth overnight - trimming our growth and reversing climate change, undoing pollution and species extinction - we still live on a planet drifting through the cosmos. That's a seriously challenging place to exist without a good backup plan.
The best security deposit we can make is to learn how to live off-world. There are likely many ways to do this, and we don't really know which are best yet. Should we have colony-sized structures in space? Should we go to the Moon? Or should we try Mars?
Mars has a long allure, and SpaceX is in many ways built from the ground up to create the bridge to our 4th planet. But apart from simply getting off the Earth and hauling infrastructure and people to this red world, you also have to deposit all of that safely on the surface. Mars is tricky in this respect. It may be a less massive world, with a gentler gravity field, but it also has a pitifully thin atmosphere that makes landing stuff a huge challenge because there's little to 'grab onto' as you come hurtling in from orbit.
Small scientific robots and rovers are already pushing the limits of what we can get to the martian surface in one piece. What's really needed is the ability to bring a whole launch vehicle down, with tons and tons of payload.
...which is exactly what we've seen SpaceX do once again.
http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/lif ... -and-mars/
Buzz Aldrin Advocates for Mars Colony
Posted by Kemberlee Kaye | Monday, April 11, 2016
Will colonization of the red planet become a reality in our lifetime?
The second man on the moon, Buzz Aldrin, is hopeful humans will be able to colonize the red planet in the near future.
In an interview with Techcrunch Monday afternoon, Aldrin discussed how he sees the government and private sector working together to get man to Mars.
After all, his mother was born in 1903, the same year the Wright brothers made their first flight, and Aldrin himself was born less than three decades later. Yet in the span of his own life he’s seen the beginnings of the American space program, he went to the Moon and today he’s still advocating for the next step — Mars. (In fact, we recently wrote about Destination: Mars, a virtual reality project in which Aldrin participated.)
“I’m playing everything I can to serve my country the best I can,” he told me. “Who are we serving? Generations in the future.”
Much of the current excitement in space travel comes from private companies like SpaceX and Blue Origin, so I also asked Aldrin about how he sees the government and the private sector working together to get us to Mars.
“It’s government competing with the private sector,” he said. Noting that many private sector efforts are government-subsidized, he added, “The government is going to be strongly involved in going to Mars, but they will be relying more and more on contracting industry and telling them what we want. Then the private sector will be in charge of making it happen. But the prescription will not be, ‘Hey, Elon, go do what you want.’”
This is not the first time Aldrin has mentioned going to Mars, in fact, he’s been pushing for human conquest of the dry planet for years now.
If it all sounds a little crazy, consider NASA recently published an aspirational plan that would see humans on mars by the 2030s.
Move over, Newt’s moon colony, we’re going to Mars!*
http://legalinsurrection.com/2016/04/bu ... rs-colony/
Elon Musk Says SpaceX ‘City on Mars’ Will Be Announced in Guadalajara, Mexico
By Robin Seemangal • 04/13/16
Following last Friday’s historic landing of the Falcon 9 rocket on the company’s autonomous drone ship, SpaceX CEO Elon Musk made a surprise (and rare) appearance at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center and told the media when he’ll lay out his plans to colonize Mars.
In the final moments of the post-launch press conference, Musk confirmed that he’ll be giving a talk at the International Aeronautical Conference (IAC) in Guadalajara, Mexico this September and that’s when he’ll make the much-anticipated announcements.
“I thought that would be a good venue to describe what we think would be a good approach,” he said when prompted by the Observer. “Something that would be effective for establishing a city on Mars.”
Such a statement isn’t to be taken lightly especially by a man who just pre-sold over 276,000 Tesla Model 3 electric cars, landed a 14-story tall rocket on a wobbly ship in the ocean, and even sent a spacecraft to dock with the International Space Station—all in a matter of weeks.
“I think it’s going to sound pretty crazy,” Musk said when referring to his Mars plans. “So it should at least be entertaining.”
Elon Musk believes that the key to becoming a multi-planet species is developing reusable rockets. “That really is the fundamental breakthrough needed to revolutionize access to space,” he said in a statement via the SpaceX website.
The billionaire commented on his vision for Mars earlier this year at the Venture Forum in Hong Kong where he also said he “hoped” to showcase SpaceX’s “architecture” for that vision at the IAC conference in Mexico. A forum Musk referred to as the “big international space event every year.”
The SpaceX Dragon cargo spacecraft is currently being unloaded at the ISS—a mission that resumes NASA-contracted supply runs that have been put on hold since last year’s mission failure. With the mishap now in his rear-view and now that SpaceX has successfully landed the first stage of their Falcon 9 rocket on both land and sea, it’s time for Elon Musk to refocus on Mars.
“It’s a fundamental decision we have to make as a civilization,” Musk said in Hong Kong. “Mars is the next, natural step. In fact, it’s the only planet we really have a shot at establishing a self-sustaining city on.”
Elon Musk has mentioned on multiple occasions that his aim is to send humans to the red planet sometime in the mid 2020’s, but until September there is nothing official. Just rumblings on Reddit and internet rumors about a Mars Colonial Transporter—a large spaceship that could initially help establish a city of dozens.
http://observer.com/2016/04/elon-musk-s ... ra-mexico/
NASA Really Is Trying to Grow Potatoes on Mars
Scientists cooking up test with potato pros in Peru; 65 varieties, red desert dirt
By Ryan Dube | April 13, 2016
PAMPAS DE LA JOYA, Peru—As humans prepare to blast off to Mars, there is still the question of what they’ll eat once they colonize the red planet. Scientists who have traveled here to the Peruvian desert say they have the answer. Potatoes.
Researchers at the Lima-based International Potato Center and scientists at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are studying which type of potato could be best suited for extraterrestrial farming to support a human settlement on Mars. If everything goes as planned, the Martian colonies could be munching on french fries, chips and mashed potatoes one day.
“It’s got to be a Martian potato that tastes good,” Julio Valdivia-Silva, a Peruvian astrobiologist with NASA, said while surveying the reddish-brown desert on a trip to collect soil. “It’s a big challenge to take a living organism somewhere else. We’ve never done this before.”
The idea is literally science fiction, included in the Hollywood blockbuster “The Martian,” where Matt Damon played a stranded astronaut and botanist who plants potatoes to survive on Mars. It’s also not so far-fetched.
Mars One, a Dutch nonprofit foundation, plans to send individuals to the planet in about 10 years on a one-way trip to establish a permanent colony. Inventor Elon Musk says his spacecraft company, SpaceX, also hopes to send humans within a decade but warned during a startup conference in Hong Kong in January that it would be “hard and dangerous and difficult in every way you can imagine.”
NASA, which landed the Curiosity rover on Mars in 2012 and found last year that water flows there, has recently announced plans to land astronauts.
That will be when the potato comes in handy.
“When humans go to Mars, they will want to grow things. They’ll need food,” said Chris McKay, a planetary scientist at NASA’s Ames Research Center in California and participant in the potato study. “I think we’ll be able to find varieties of potatoes that will grow at cold and low-pressure conditions. That would be interesting to know for Mars applications.”
The potato is a major global crop thanks to its ability to adapt to a variety of climates and its abundance of carbohydrates, as well as protein, vitamin C, iron and zinc. Peru, birthplace of the humble tuber, is home to over 4,500 varieties, more than anywhere else, according to the International Potato Center. Potatoes here also have another advantage: They’re not just for eating.
Reddish, purple and yellow spuds are used as dyes. Potatoes can be used as a battery. In Peru’s rural highlands, a lumpy potato called “the weeping bride” is given by the groom’s mother to the bride-to-be to test how good a wife she will be (it all depends on how neatly she peels the hard-to-peel spud).
Peru is good for the experiment because of the Pampas de La Joya Desert, one of the driest spots on Earth, which receives about a millimeter of precipitation a year. It is part of South America’s vast Atacama Desert that has long been studied by NASA for its Mars-like conditions, in particular its dirt.
For the potato study, scientists selected 65 varieties of spuds known to be the most resilient.
The first step will be to plant the tubers in over 1,300 pounds of soil transported from this desert to Lima. If they grow successfully, the potatoes will then be planted in a simulator that factors in the atmospheric conditions on Mars.
Walter Amoros, a Peruvian scientist at the International Potato Center, said he thinks half of the potatoes will grow in the desert soil, but only about 10 will yield a good-sized tuber. The flavor could change under the stress, he warned, which is common on Earth when potatoes are exposed to severe drought and high temperatures. That sometimes makes them so bitter they are inedible.
On Mars, the temperature averages minus 84 degrees Fahrenheit, with lows of minus 284 degrees, according to NASA. It has high levels of radiation and over 60% less gravity than Earth. Its atmosphere has 96% carbon dioxide, with only a tiny amount of oxygen. Then there are the dust storms and salty water.
Mars and Peru. The landscape is very similar. Photos: NASA, Ryan Dube/The Wall Street Journal
The potatoes “are going to pass through an acid test. I’ve done tests under stressful conditions, but never so stressful,” Mr. Amoros said. “I don’t think they’ll grow in the open air [on Mars]. They will have to plant them under controlled conditions, in domes.”
Early space travelers relied on paste-like food squeezed from aluminum tubes. Today, astronauts have a more appetizing menu: chicken, beef and even salmon jerky. Salt and pepper are provided in liquid form, to prevent them from floating away. There is coffee, orange juice and lemonade, consumed through straws.
NASA’s plant studies are currently focused on leafy greens like lettuce, which has been grown in small plant chambers on the international space station. They also plan to study Chinese cabbage and dwarf tomatoes. While less nutritious than potatoes, researchers hope the greens will be able to complement astronauts’ diet during space flights.
Scientists say growing food—should humans colonize Mars—would reduce costs and mitigate risks of transporting food by shuttle.
“If something goes wrong, if you can produce some of your own food in situ, then you have that as a means to sustain yourself,” said Raymond Wheeler, a plant physiologist at NASA.
Until cultivating begins, scientists foresee transporting potatoes to Mars in refrigerated tubes. They could be planted by machines in a controlled environment before humans arrive. If Martian soil proves to be too hostile, there are options of growing them without soil by hydroponics and aeroponics, which deliver nutrients in water and air, respectively.
They will still need fertilizer, which scientists say could be resolved on Mars by recycling nutrients from urine and inedible plant parts.
“This will be important for achieving sustainable-type systems,” Mr. Wheeler said, “regardless of the approach.”
Abel Yapo, a student volunteer who helped dig up the desert soil, said he hopes one day to eat potatoes on Mars. “It would be a dream,” he said. “With my potatoes from the results we get here.”
http://www.wsj.com/articles/nasa-really ... 1460560325
Buzz Aldrin: Colonize Mars! Not the Moon!
In No Dream Is Too High, the Apollo 11 legend said the moon is old news
Kastalia Medrano, April 15, 2016
Buzz Aldrin really, really wants you to go to Mars.
His new memoir, No Dream Is Too High, covers his life of moonwalking and shooting down commies, organized under his 13 top life lessons (“The sky is not the limit … There are footprints on the Moon!”; “Second comes right after first”). If you don’t like dad jokes, you will not like what is at its core a big book of granddad jokes. (“Innovation is my middle name unless I decide to change it to “Lightyear.”) It’s apparent from the beginning that Aldrin is a storyteller.
Much as walking on the moon would be the fulfillment of a lifelong dream for many people, this book fulfills my own lifelong dream of Buzz Aldrin being my grandpa. This book will make you feel like you’re sitting cross-legged around a campfire, looking eagerly up at Grandpa Buzz while he tells you ghost stories and tales of his glory days. Co-writer Ken Abraham could have cleaned the manuscript up, cut out some of the “literally”s and “definitely”s and exclamation points, and he did not, and that is as it should be because Buzz Aldrin is a national treasure and his book should sound like him. This is a book that parents should read aloud to their kids.
Toward the end of the book, after most of the Life Lessons and graduation-gift inspirational quotes, we get to something that’s clearly important to Buzz: colonizing Mars.
The moon, says Buzz, is “been there, done that.” Returning would be an unnecessary drain on our nations resources. Mars, though - that’s where our focus should be. Buzz is not messing around with this:
“Permanence is key, right from the get-go. Some of my colleagues don’t feel that establishing a settlement on Mars is wise; others consider it a suicide mission. I disagree. Over a period of six or seven years, we can construct a habitat and laboratory on Mars. Certainly, some people will go to Mars, stay for a while, and return to Earth, but we should also seek out and encourage people who with to travel to Mars and remain there for the rest of their lives.
Aldrin’s book tells us that he was the first person to ever take a selfie in space, and that the first thing he did on the moon was pee his pants (don’t bother making a “one giant leak for mankind” joke, Buzz is already there). It tells us he ate celery in his lunch every day for years because it didn’t occur to him to tell his wife he didn’t like it. It tells us about his struggles with alcohol and depression, and how it felt to watch men he admired be killed in aviation- and space exploration-related accidents. It does not tell us, as I had hoped, that Buzz had finally come around to the reality that human beings are contributing to global warming, but we can’t have everything. I think the best thing we learn, though, is just how excited Buzz is for Mars, and how hard he’s trying to put us there.
SpaceX CEO Elon Musk recently appeared at the NASA Kennedy Space Center and said hell make an statement about his company’s plans to colonize Mars within the year. (Buzz mentioned private spaceflight company Blue Origin in the book, but no SpaceX. Read into that what you will, though there was still lots of praise for Elon Musk.)
The Curiosity Rover continues to send back just all kinds of cool stuff. Musk has said he needs just 11 or 12 years to put people on Mars, which means Buzz might really see this happen. At 86, he says he plans to live for several more decades.
https://www.inverse.com/article/14369-b ... t-the-moon
Studenten koloniseren Mars met E. coli bacterie
20 april 2016
LEIDEN - E. coli-bacteriën gebruiken om een giftige verbinding in de bodem van Mars om te zetten naar zuurstof, zodat leven hier mogelijk wordt. Met dit idee doet een team van 13 Leidse studenten mee aan de jaarlijkse iGEM-competitie. Een internationale wedstrijd waarin studenten maatschappelijke problemen oplossen met genetische manipulatie. De iGEM-competitie is een jaarlijkse, wereldwijde studentenwedstrijd op het gebied van de synthetische biologie waaraan honderden teams meedoen.
Perchloraat is veelvuldig aanwezig in de bodem van Mars en is erg giftig voor mensen. De stof verstoort de werking van de schildklier, die hormonen produceert voor de spijsvertering. Om de bodem van Mars te kunnen gebruiken, moet het perchloraat worden verwijderd. ‘We besloten om bacteriën genetisch te manipuleren, zodat we dit giftige molecuul kunnen wegnemen en omzetten naar iets nuttigs, zoals zuurstof’, aldus biologiestudent Valentijn Broeken van het Leidse iGEM-team.Het team wil genen van Dechloromonas agitata, een bacterie die perchloraat al kan omzetten, inbrengen in de E. coli bacterie
Op dinsdag 26 april presenteert het team dit project tijdens de This Week’s Discoveries-lezing van de faculteit Wiskunde & Natuurwetenschappen van de Universiteit Leiden. In oktober presenteren de deelnemers hun project op de Giant Jamboree in Boston (USA). Tot die tijd kunnen de vorderingen van dit studententeam worden gevolgd via Facebook en Twitter.
http://www.unity.nu/Artikelen/leiden/st ... i-bacterie
By Loren Grush on April 27, 2016 11:52 am
SpaceX plans to send its Dragon spacecraft to Mars as early as 2018, the company announced today — marking a major first step toward CEO Elon Musk’s goal of sending humans to the Red Planet. The company didn’t say how many spacecrafts it will send, but hinted it would conduct a series of these Dragon missions and that it would release more details soon. In a tweet, the company indicated that the capsules would fly on SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy rocket, a bigger version of its Falcon 9; the rocket will launch the capsules to the planet to test out how to land heavy payloads on Mars. If successful, the endeavor would make SpaceX the first private spaceflight company to land a vehicle on another planet.
SpaceX is sending what it calls the Red Dragon, a modified version of the spacecraft that the company uses to transport cargo to and from the International Space Station. The Red Dragon is equipped with eight SuperDraco engines that allow the capsule to land on solid ground, a technique known as a propulsive landing. The engines are meant to turn on during the Dragon's descent toward the Martian surface, slowing down the vehicle's fall and allowing it to land on ground in a controlled way. It's similar to how SpaceX lands its Falcon 9 rockets post-launch.
Propulsive landings could be an efficient way to get large amounts of hardware down to the surface of Mars — something that NASA still hasn't figured out how to do yet. Spacecraft returning to Earth have a thick atmosphere to help slow down their fall, but Mars' atmosphere is just one-hundredth the pressure of Earth's, providing less cushion for incoming vehicles and increasing the likelihood of a crash. So far, NASA only knows how to land 1 metric ton of hardware on Mars gently. The agency is working on an inflatable lander that could potentially land more weight, but testing of the vehicle has run into a few snags. In 2014, NASA explored the feasibility of using SpaceX's Red Dragon concept to land equipment on Mars and determined that the capsule's landing technique could work. NASA also proposed the idea of using the Red Dragon to bring samples from Mars back to Earth, though SpaceX hasn’t announced plans of incorporating that idea into the 2018 mission.
These Red Dragon missions will be an important precursor to SpaceX's long-term goal of setting up a Martian colony. Any human missions to Mars will require sending tons of equipment over first before people get there so colonists have all the supplies they need to keep them alive. The Red Dragon could be a crucial vehicle for transporting supplies to and from the planet. Musk has said that he will reveal the full extent of his Mars colonization plan this September at the International Aeronautical Congress in Guadalajara, Mexico, according to the Observer.
There's still a lot to be done before the Red Dragon makes it to Mars. SpaceX has shown that its rockets can land propulsively, but the technique hasn't been demonstrated yet on the Dragon capsule. The company has used the SuperDraco engines to ascend the Dragon during a pad abort test, and the engines have been used to make the spacecraft hover, but not land. SpaceX plans to test out propulsive landing on a future Dragon cargo capsule, after the spacecraft returns from the International Space Station.
And to get the Red Dragon to Mars, SpaceX will use its Falcon Heavy — a heavy-lift version of the company's Falcon 9 that's currently under development. The Falcon Heavy has yet to fly, but SpaceX is planning the first test flight of the vehicle for November of this year. That said, the test flight deadline has been pushed back quite a few times.
If SpaceX pulls this off, the Red Dragon will be one of the largest things to ever land on Mars. NASA’s Curiosity rover weighed 1,982 pounds when it landed, but the Red Dragon will weigh five to 10 times more than any other vehicle landed on Mars, according to SpaceX. Plus, the mission would be privately funded, making it the first commercial vehicle to land on the Red Planet. SpaceX did not go into cost specifics for the mission, though.
Landing the spacecraft on Mars is just part of what SpaceX will need to start a colony there. The company will need to develop an interplanetary transport vehicle, surface habitats, life support systems, and much, much more. But if SpaceX meets this ambitious 2018 deadline, it suggests the company may be further along than even NASA at putting people on the Red Planet. For the past few years, NASA has been touting its Journey to Mars initiative, which entails sending astronauts to our planetary neighbor. But NASA won’t be sending people to Mars until the 2030s, and the Journey to Mars ideas has been criticized by politicians and industry experts for lacking a cohesive plan. NASA's next robotic trip to Mars, separate from the Journey to Mars plan, will involve landing a new rover on the planet in 2020.
Atmosfeer van Mars was mogelijk ooit zuurstofrijk
25 april 2016 | Andy Coghlan | Astronomie
Uit analyses van rotsen op Mars blijkt dat de atmosfeer van de planeet ooit mogelijk veel meer zuurstof bevatte dan op dit moment.
Mars dankt zijn bijnaam aan de laag ijzeroxide (of roest) die ‘de rode planeet’ omhult. Maar naast ijzeroxide, vond Marsrover Curiosity mangaanoxide in rotsen van Mars’ krater Gale.
‘Zo’n 3 procent van de rotsen bleek een hoog gehalte aan mangaanoxide te bevatten’, melde Agnes Cousin van sterrenkundig instituut IRAP in Toulouse, Frankrijk afgelopen week op een bijeenkomst van de Europese Geofysische Unie in Wenen. ‘Voor het ontstaan van mangaanoxide is veel water nodig en zijn oxiderende omstandigheden vereist. De dampkring van Mars bevatte ooit mogelijk meer zuurstof dan we dachten.’
Momenteel bestaat Mars’ atmosfeer voor 95 procent uit CO2. De dampkring van de rode planeet bevat slechts geringe hoeveelheden zuurstof. Desondanks vermoedden veel wetenschappers dat Mars’ dampkring ooit rijk aan zuurstof moet zijn geweest. De vondst van mangaanoxide vormt het eerste échte bewijs daarvoor, aldus het onderzoeksteam.
Curiosity vond mangaanoxide met behulp van zijn ‘ChemCam’. Dit apparaat gebruikt een laser om rotsen te bestralen en analyseert vervolgens de samenstelling van het stof dat bij de bestraling vrijkomt. De onderzoekers weten nog niet wanneer de mangaanoxide gevormd is, maar hopen dat vervolgonderzoek met Curiosity dat zal uitwijzen.
Veel mangaanoxide is gevonden op de plek in de krater waar zich ooit een meer bevond. Cousin denkt daarom dat mangaanoxide ontstaan is op de plek waar ooit zuurstofrijk water stroomde. ‘Het is goed mogelijk dat de zuurstof zowel in de dampkring als lokaal in het water aanwezig was’, zegt ze. ‘Op die plek kan oxidatie hebben plaatsgevonden.’
De aanwijzing voor zuurstof in de dampkring roept de vraag op of er ooit leven geweest is op Mars. Maar te veel zuurstof kan het ontstaan van leven juist verstoord hebben, vertelt Damien Loizeau van de universiteit van Lyon in Frankrijk. Op aarde resulteert de oxidatie van organische moleculen immers in hun afbraak. ‘O2 is een ramp voor leven zoals we dat kennen, al kennen we alleen leven als bron van grote hoeveelheden O2’, aldus Loizeau.
Twee mangaanrijke monsters, afgebeeld met behulp van de ChemCam.
http://www.newscientist.nl/nieuws/atmos ... rstofrijk/
Donald Trump to Help Russia and SpaceX Colonize Mars
By Anthony Cerullo - april 30, 2016
After Donald Trump’s highly anticipated foreign policy speech, it seems the Republican candidate is making some unlikely friends. Russia, of all places, seems to love his attitude and imply that a healthy relationship would exist if he becomes President. With the Russian’s trying to literally get their space program off the ground, perhaps they will reach in the pockets of Trump for a little inspiration. Meanwhile, SpaceX is just trying to get to Mars.
RUSSIA GOES CRAZY OVER DONALD TRUMP
For the most part, Russia and the U.S. haven’t exactly seen eye to eye on anything since WWII. It only makes sense that the country would take to the most controversial of American Presidential candidates, Donald Trump. His foreign policy speech was met with high praises all over the country and Putin even called the Donald intelligent. In his speech, Trump preached easing tensions between Russian’s and the U.S, a concept that Russian citizens received warmly. While those in the streets of Moscow commend the man, many in America are shaking their heads in confusion.
PUTIN SUCKING UP TO TRUMP
A confused American is about as common as water on a rainy day, but this time, they might actually have a case. Why exactly do Putin and the Russian citizens love Donald Trump so much? They say it’s due to his frank, open attitude and general disregard for political correctness. While that may true, it’s possible their liking is linked to something deeper. Putin hasn’t exactly been happy with their space program as of late and it doesn’t seem like he’s getting any help from the U.S. At least not during this administration. Having good relations with a president such as Donald Trump would certainly ease tensions between American and Russia, but surely Putin is thinking the long con here. They can’t get to Mars themselves, not with current funding. If Russia thinks they can get help from the U.S though, they are barking up the wrong Trump. It’s SpaceX they should really take after.
SPACEX TO MARS ON THEIR OWN
NASA is a little better off than Russia in terms of funding but it doesn’t look like the U.S Senate is putting much effort into getting NASA to Mars. Donald Trump doesn’t seem like the space type either, so we can’t bank on his support. For the U.S, the fate of Americans colonizing Mars rests in the hands of SpaceX. CEO Elon Musk has set aside a date of 2018 for a SpaceX mission to Mars. This will initiate a series of tests to land heavy machinery on the planet, with the end game of colonization. With the hype and success around SpaceX growing, it’s looking more like this milestone will be in privatized hands.
http://clapway.com/2016/04/30/donald-tr ... acex-mars/
Mars One Expects To Keep All Media Profits Within 2-3 Years, Plans To Fund Space Trip Entirely With Donations
By Michael Gardiner | Thu, 04/07/2016
Mars One Co-founder and CEO Bas Lansdorp told iDigitalTimes that he expects the planned one-way trip to the red planet to be entirely funded by donations within 2-3 years. This means that any profits gained from broadcasting the crew’s training, as well as licensing any intellectual property rights, will instead be kept to pay the “billionaires,” as Lansdorp put it, who invest in the venture now.
“I actually believe by the time we send the first crew, we will get more donations than we need to finance to the mission, so if it that is true all the revenues [will stay with the corporation],” Lansdorp said. "If it’s not necessary to [invest the profit back into the mission], then no, because we need investors to make this happen and the best way of getting investors is by giving them the best deal possible.”
As previously reported, Mars One expects to run the crew training for a period of ten years, live broadcasting the potential astronauts as they’re locked up in a simulation of the planned Mars outpost for indefinite amounts of time. Lansdorp has said that he plans to have events such as toilet malfunctions or midnight system failures to continuously challenge the trainees' fortitude, supposedly to prepare them for the life threatening scenarios that could occur on Mars.
“Of course, right now, we need to spend much more money than we get in donations, so there would be a lot of upfront money coming from the for-profit part of the company into the foundation. At some point in time, it will be reduced until it’s zero,” Lansdorp said. “It might be as soon as two to three years, but it really depends on the hype, and you can’t really predict hype. We know by the time we send humans, everybody will be watching — everybody — but it’s very difficult to predict if that will be linear or like a hockey stick or a opposite hockey stick.”
The Mars One venture is made up of two separately registered entities — Mars One Media B.V., a private corporation that “holds the exclusive media and intellectual property rights to the mission and will give the investors a good return on investment by monetizing those rights,” and Mars One, a non-profit foundation which “will own the outpost on Mars, and . . . will train the crews.”
According to Lansdorp, this is because Dutch law prohibits nonprofits from keeping anything more than a reasonable cash reserve. The nonprofit foundation, in charge of running the Mars One operations that require money, will spend the donations before using any revenue coming from Mars One’s private arm.
“If we need $2 billion per year after the first manned mission, then there’s no need for money. So [if] we get more, we would have to spend it. We would have to start doing ridiculous things to spend the money,” Lansdorp said. “It’s the responsibility of the for-profit part of the company to pay the foundation for the mission and anything that’s not necessary for it can remain inside the for-profit part of the company as a return on investment for the investors.”
Lansdorp expects the profits from broadcasting the crew’s training to be olympian, quite literally pointing to the Olympics as an example of what could be achieved with a global reality show.
However, as Elmo Keep pointed out, not only was the enthusiasm for the venture drastically over-reported on — only 4,227 applications were received, not 200,000 — but merchandising was heavily marketed toward those applicants, with community members receiving arbitrary points based on how many T-shirts, hoodies, and posters they purchased.
According to Dr. Joseph Roche, a former NASA researcher included in The Guardian’s top ten Mars One applicant shortlist, and who spoke to Keep, all the application process consisted of was a questionnaire, uploading a self-recorded video to the Mars One website, a physical with an applicant’s own local doctor, and a 10 minute long Skype call.
Both the Mars One private and nonprofit arms are registered in the Netherlands at a suburban house address, and according to Lansdorp, the entire Mars One operation is run by a team of less than ten people. Seven are listed on the Mars One “About Us” page.
Lansdorp said that Mars One has stopped negotiating any new media licensing deals, as, “if [Mars One] can take a few more steps, it will be much easier for us to negotiate deals where we can keep hold of all the media rights and be in charge of what goes on TV.”
EDIT: The total number of submitted applications was originally reported as 2,761. This has been updated to 4,227 (h/t @MartianColonist).
http://www.idigitaltimes.com/mars-one-e ... rip-525341
Will SpaceX Get People to Mars Before NASA?
May 2, 2016 12:00 PM ET // by Irene Klotz
Concept art showing the SpaceX Dragon on its way to Mars.
Billionaire tech entrepreneur Elon Musk, never one to rest on his laurels, recently laid out the opening move in his long-term quest to land people (himself included) on Mars.
The plan begins with a Dragon capsule, similar to one of the cargo ships now parked at the International Space Station, blasting off for Mars aboard a SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket as early as 2018.
The Falcon Heavy, which will have 27 first-stage engines, compared to the nine aboard SpaceX’s current Falcon rocket, is scheduled for its first flight before the end of this year. Falcon Heavy will be the most powerful U.S. rocket to fly since NASA’s Saturn 5 moon rockets of the 1970s.
NASA, which was an early supporter and primary customer of Musk’s Space Exploration Technologies, or SpaceX, was quick to respond to his Mars announcement with a statement of support and the disclosure of an agreement offering technical support.
NASA, after all, has successfully landed spacecraft on Mars seven times.
SpaceX, which has multibillion-dollar contracts with NASA to fly cargo and crew to the space station, won’t be getting financial support from NASA for its debut Mars mission, known as Red Dragon.
The prospect of SpaceX’s self-financed journey to Mars, one which Musk clearly intends to develop to the point of landing people, casts new light on NASA’s own Mars program. The project costs NASA about $4 billion per year and does not yet include development of a habitat for deep-space travel or a vehicle to land and then take off again from the surface.
For now, the agency is focused on developing the multipurpose deep-space Orion capsule and a heavy-lift rocket, known as the Space Launch System. The capsule and launcher will be tested together for the first time during an unmanned flight around the moon in November 2018. A follow-up test flight with astronauts aboard is targeted for 2023, setting the stage for a human mission to Mars in the mid-2030s.
Which begs the question: Will SpaceX be there first?
“I hope that Space X and NASA — perhaps in a role more … as advisor instead of NASA as operator — will work together in global harmony to jointly land humans on Mars,” astronaut Buzz Aldrin wrote in an email to Discovery News.
Aldrin, one of 12 Americans to walk on the moon, has developed a plan to colonize Mars.
Bob Zubrin, another long-term advocate for Mars settlement, said he thinks its possible SpaceX may land people before NASA and “probable” that U.S. astronauts will ride as passengers to Mars on SpaceX vehicles.
SpaceX intends to use a new landing technology called supersonic retro-propulsion, which has never been demonstrated on Mars.
“I wouldn’t bet against SpaceX eventually landing a Dragon on Mars, but it is 300 miles to send the Dragon to the space station. Mars is 150 million miles away and has a thin atmosphere to deal with. (The) degree of difficulty is way, way higher,” Scott Hubbard, a consulting professor at Stanford University and former director of NASA’s Ames Research Center in California, wrote in an email to Discovery News.
Hubbard, who also served as NASA’s first Mars program director, said several critical technologies must be matured before anyone steps foot on Mars, including high-power solar electric propulsion for cargo and resupply ships and a deep-space habitat and life support systems for crews during the rides to and from Mars, which take between six and nine months each way.
“Humans to Mars is such a complex and difficult undertaking that I expect an successful mission to be collaborative — maybe public private partnership, maybe multinational, maybe all of the above,” Hubbard said.
More details of Musk’s Mars plan are expected to be unveiled at the International Astronautical Congress in September.
http://news.discovery.com/space/private ... 160502.htm
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