Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

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xplosive
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Berichtdoor xplosive » Za Feb 16, 2019 9:10 pm

 

13 februari 2019, Tim Kraaijvanger

Het doek valt voor Marsrover Opportunity. Ruim vijftien jaar na de landing trekt NASA de stekker uit de missie.

In juni 2018 stopte de rover met communiceren, nadat een heftige stofstorm de atmosfeer rijkelijk met stof vulde. Hierdoor kon de rover geen energie meer opwekken. Er zat nog wel energie in zijn accu's opgeslagen, maar het bleek niet voldoende te zijn om daar op te teren.

De Amerikaanse ruimtevaartorganisatie heeft meer dan 600 keer geprobeerd om contact te leggen met Opportunity, maar helaas zonder resultaat. Eind januari werd er nog een nieuwe methode geïntroduceerd; de zogeheten 'sweep and beep'-methode. Hierbij wordt er niet alleen geluisterd of Opportunity van zich laat horen, maar worden ook commando's verstuurd die Opportunity aanmoedigen om met een simpel piepje zelf een signaal uit te zenden. Maar ook deze verwoede poging haalde niets uit.

Vandaag zou er nog één laatste poging worden gedaan om de rover aan te roepen. Zoals eigenlijk wel verwacht is ook deze poging op niets uitgelopen.

45 kilometer op Mars
We hoeven echter niet te treuren. Opportunity zou oorspronkelijk slechts negentig Martiaanse dagen operationeel zijn en in die tijd duizend meter afleggen. Wie had voor de tijd kunnen denken dat Opportunity meer dan 45 kilometer op de teller zou zetten? Ook heeft de rover de levensverwachting met een factor zestig opgerekt. Knappe prestatie.

Tweelingbroer
Opportunity's tweelingbroer Spirit is al langer muisstil. In 2009 kwam de Marsrover vast te zitten in het mulle zand nabij het Home Plate plateau. Er werkten nog maar vier van de zes wieltjes, waardoor de reddingsactie mislukte. In maart 2010 stopte de rover met communiceren.

Volharding
De laatste rustplaats van de rover is Perseverance Valley. Perseverance betekent 'volharding'. "Die naam past natuurlijk perfect bij Opportunity", zegt Michael Watkins, directeur van JPL. "De ontdekkingen en records van deze rover laten zien hoe vindingrijk en toegewijd de mensen waren die Opportunity bouwden en begeleidden."

Mars was ooit vochtig
De belangrijkste conclusie die Opportunity trok, is dat het klimaat op Mars vier miljard jaar geleden langdurig mild en vochtig was. Het suggereert dat de omstandigheden op Mars in die tijd heel gunstig waren voor microbieel leven. Of dat er ook daadwerkelijk is ontstaan, is onduidelijk.

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xplosive
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Berichtdoor xplosive » Wo Feb 27, 2019 2:19 am

 

By Katia Moskvitch, January 27, 2019

It lasts around 23 minutes and feels "like going over Niagara Falls in a barrel, on fire, then crashing really hard."

That's how retired Nasa astronaut Ron Garan describes the return from space, strapped into the tight confines of a Soyuz capsule plummeting through the atmosphere back to Earth. The touchdown, slowed by a parachute and – at the very end – six small rockets, is called "soft," but in reality it's extremely rough.

We've all seen the scenes once the capsule has landed – astronauts and cosmonauts being carried away from Soyuz and carefully lowered into chairs. This is not a precaution; people returning from space literally cannot walk. The reason, however, is not the rough re-entry, but the fact that while in space, they have kind of lost their legs – albeit temporarily.

Astronauts returning to Earth after a long stint in space are so badly disorientated that they usually can't walk properly for 24 hours or longer. Turns out human brains function differently in space and when an astronaut gets back, it takes his or her brain some time to re-train itself. Now Marissa Rosenberg, a neuroscientist at Nasa, plans to use virtual reality headsets as a tool to short-cut the training.

Rosenberg has seen it with her own eyes – meeting astronauts three times just after their Soyuz capsule had come down with a thud in the desert near Karaganda in Kazakhstan. "They're dizzy and motion sick," she says, after having presented her research at PauseFest conference in Melbourne earlier this month. One disorienting aspect of it is something called the 'otolith tilt translation reinterpretation' – a mouthful, she laughs, so researchers simple call it 'Otter'.

It's a theory that when you go into space, the organs in your inner ear function differently from how they work on Earth. On the ground, the inner ear will normally sense translation – any sort of linear acceleration, so going up and down in a lift, or left and right, or starting a car and stopping the car, as well as tilt. "If you were to tilt your chin down in space, however, the inner ear stops sensing tilt and only senses translation," says Rosenberg. That's where the name comes from – you're reinterpreting that signal, which once meant both translation and tilt. Now, it only means translation.

Researchers say our brain is 'plastic', which means it learns pretty quickly, within a few days – and for some reason, the brain doesn't care why the inner ear no longer senses tilt.

Here's how it works. Imagine the brain as a box with jelly, and hair cells poking up through that gelatinous matrix. On top, there are little calcium stones called the otolith. Say you are holding this tray of jelly in a car and someone slams on the brakes, the jelly and everything on top will bend back a bit. The hair cells are attached to a nerve, and when they bend, they send the signal on the nerve we're bending – you're stopping or accelerating, or you're going up or down.

Now if you tilt your box with jelly down, gravity will pull and flex those hair cells. On Earth, your brain all by itself has no way of telling the difference between tilting and translation from that organ alone, says Rosenberg. "Obviously, with the input from eyesight, our neck muscles and other organs, I can tell if I'm doing this, or if I'm accelerating in a car. The brain figures it out," she explains.

But when you go into space, and you're holding your jelly and a crew member pushes you really fast, you're still going to get that deflection of the otolith above your hair cells because they still have mass and thus inertia. But when you tilt the box – well, your head – down, they're not going to pull on the hair cells because there's no gravity acting on them. That's why the brain senses one and not the other.

For astronauts coming back to Earth, when they look down to grab, say, a coffee cup, they feel like they're zooming towards it, while in real life the distance to the coffee isn't shrinking at all. "That is a huge source of the disorientation," says Rosenberg. The same with turning corners – they suddenly stagger. "We think that's the same thing that when they turn their head this way, they feel like they're moving," she adds.

The brain re-learns pretty quickly – within 24 hours it's recovered by about 70 per cent, while over two weeks it recovers around 98 per cent, says Rosenberg. When you've got "a whole village," as she puts it, to pull you out of Soyuz and take care of you, this is not a particularly big problem. Plus there's the official support: a military helicopter with a medical team on board can spot the capsule from far away, and as soon as it touches down, the helicopter is on the ground – and at the capsule within 45 seconds. "It's incredible – within 15 minutes, they get a giant tent off the plane, inflate it, it has power thanks to a generator, it's really spectacular to see," says Rosenberg.

But what if humans were ever to land on Mars? There won't be anyone to pull them out. It's also an issue in the nearer future, once US astronauts finally start using American crafts to go back to Earth again, especially when it's a capsule like Orion, which is designed to land on water. The crew may need to get out by themselves, especially if there's some emergency on board such as a fire. In their current state, says Rosenberg, they are unlikely to be able to do that.

And that's where virtual reality comes in. For the past few years, Rosenberg has been experimenting with VR headsets, training subjects to be much less disorientated upon their return from space. For this part of the study, she's not yet working with astronauts, but her test subjects have been simulating trips to Mars and back – in effect, simulating otolith translation reinterpretation, or Otter.

First, a test subject is put in a virtual environment that looks like a flat Martian plane, with mountains on the horizon to navigate. To trick the brain, however, their view of "Mars" is overlayed with a checkerboard. This transparent grid is not fixed to the direction where they are looking at; instead when they swivel their head, the checkerboard moves with their vision. "It's an autokinetic illusion that makes you feel like you're in motion when you're not. So when they would turn their head to the left, the checkerboard moving makes you feel like you're linearly moving to the left." In effect, Rosenberg takes a number of problems with VR – dizziness, confusion, disorientation – and uses them to her advantage.

Without training, your body would simply falter and fall over. Over four consecutive days, her test subjects walk about 200 steps for about 20 minutes, with disorientation and without. At the end of this training, they are able to walk without falling over – regardless of whether their vision is being disoriented or not. Three months later, she tested the same people again, and could show that they had retained enough of their training to avoid falling over even when they saw the autokinetic illusion. "That means we can train [astronauts] on Earth, and they'll have the benefits when they come back," she says.

It's not certain yet whether Rosenberg will be able to test her findings on real astronauts, though. At Nasa, researchers routinely put forward rival proposals to solve a problem, and only will get the nod to go ahead. If hers is selected, she hopes to work with the team training astronauts. But can VR really help astronauts, considering that – despite years of hype – VR has been incredibly slow to gain momentum?

"Simulation has been used for decades to successfully train pilots and there is use of virtual reality simulation training in the military," says Erica Southgate, a VR expert at the University of Newcastle in Australia. In education, the most common use of VR is indeed in training scenarios, she adds – helping people acclimatise to conditions before they are actually in them.

But how to use VR or other immersive technologies for higher-order thinking tasks is less well known, says Southgate.

For example, for an original creative task or a situation that requires reasoned evaluation and decision-making in circumstances where there may not be a clear-cut answer. "Right now there is a lot of excitement around immersive VR and education," she says. "What is required are interdisciplinary approaches involving collaborations between psychology, computer science, biomedicine, education and the arts," – for more rigorous research.

Still, users of the online virtual world Second Life have reported improvements in their physical movements in real life after navigating through their virtual settings, says Becky Inkster, a psychiatrist at the University of Cambridge. "There is definitely potential to alter the brain's plasticity and create adaptive responses to its real and virtual environments."

Tuong Nguyen, a Gartner analyst, says that we're still currently in exploration mode with VR – both in terms of what can be done and what the potential outcomes are. For example, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital in the US has been using VR for pain mitigation. "I think there's potential use for VR to provide an immersive experience that can give people practice and experience with real life situations, whether it's learning certain tasks, acclimating yourself to unique and demanding situations, or improving on current decision-making abilities," says Nguyen.

But the technology has to evolve first. He says that headsets need to become lighter, smaller and cheaper, and that manufacturers have to solve the problem that for some users they cause dizziness and nausea. Still, VR offers an advantage in high cost, high insurance and high risk-type situations – such as for astronauts. "I think of technology as a marathon, not a sprint. We didn't go from carphones to smartphones. We're on the cusp of something very exciting, but it will take a few years for all the pieces to come together to make that happen."
Gun jezelf wat je een ander toewenst     islam = racisme   & de hel op aarde voor mens en dier
                                   koran = racistisch & handboek voor criminelen
      Moslimlanden bewijzen dagelijks:    meer islam = meer verkrachte mensenrechten

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xplosive
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Berichtdoor xplosive » Di Mar 05, 2019 12:50 am

 

By James Griffiths, CNN, Updated 2330 GMT (0730 HKT) March 3, 2019

China will follow up on its successful mission to the far side of the moon by sending a probe to Mars next year, one of the country's top space scientists said Sunday.

Speaking ahead of the opening of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), a major political event in Beijing, Wu Weiren, chief designer of China's lunar exploration program, said the red planet was the natural next step.

"Over the past 60 years, we've made a lot of achievements, but there is still a large distance from the world space powers. We must speed up our pace," he said. "Next year, we will launch a Mars probe, which will orbit around the Mars, land on it and probe it."

China will also send an additional probe to the Moon, which will take samples from the surface and return to Earth. If successful, it will become only the third country to have completed such a task, after the United States and Russia.

Wu's comments came as a Mars simulation base opened in Qinghai's Qaidam Basin, a hyper-arid region in western China that is the highest desert on Earth and long considered one of the best parallels with the Martian surface on our own planet.

According to the state-run Global Times, the new simulation base cost $22.3 million to build and covers an area of 53,330 square meters. It can accommodate 60 people in its capsules and hundreds in tents around the base.

While the red rocky area bears a strikingly similarity to Mars, Jiao Weixin, a space science professor at Peking University, told the paper "it's extremely difficult to simulate Mars due to its special natural features and hostile environment -- low air pressure, strong radiation and frequent sandstorms, as well as vast differences in geography."

China was late to the space race -- it didn't send its first satellite into orbit until 1970, by which time the United States had already landed an astronaut on the moon -- but it has been catching up fast.

Since 2003, China has sent six crews into space and launched two space labs into Earth's orbit. In 2013, it successfully landed a rover -- Yutu 1 -- on the moon, becoming only the third country to do so.

In December last year, it landed another probe and a rover, Yutu 2, on the far side of the moon, the first time this had ever been done.

Progress has been slow going since then: due to the extreme conditions on the far side of the moon, the rover often has to go into hibernation to preserve its capabilities for further exploration, Wu said on Sunday.

"Due to the moon's rotation and revolution, the night on the moon is 14 days long. This reduces the temperature on the moon to minus 190 degrees Celsius, a temperature that all components, parts, and electronic components cannot stand," Wu said. "So we let it sleep for a while, ensuring it can spend the night safely. A few days ago, it woke up automatically ... and started to work. Currently, it is in normal condition."

He said that the probe was currently headed northwest of its original landing site in the Von Karman Crater, adding, "we've gained a lot of data in the past few days, and we are going to reveal the data to the world."
Gun jezelf wat je een ander toewenst     islam = racisme   & de hel op aarde voor mens en dier
                                   koran = racistisch & handboek voor criminelen
      Moslimlanden bewijzen dagelijks:    meer islam = meer verkrachte mensenrechten

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Pilgrim
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Berichtdoor Pilgrim » Wo Mar 13, 2019 2:09 am

Trump gunt NASA in 2020 21 miljard dollar

Caroline Kraaijvanger, 12 maart 2019

Het geld wordt onder meer ingezet om voorbereidingen te treffen voor bemande maanmissies.

Gisteren maakte president Donald Trump bekend hoeveel geld hij in 2020 vrij wil maken voor NASA: 21 miljard dollar. NASA-baas Jim Bridenstine noemt het “een sterke motie van vertrouwen”.

Slachtoffers
Maar ook met 21 miljard dollar kun je niet álles doen. En dus zijn er ook in 2020 een paar slachtoffers te betreuren. Zo wordt er als het aan Trump ligt geen geld meer gestoken in de Block 1B-variant van het Space Launch System (waarmee net wat meer lading gelanceerd kan worden, zie afbeelding hieronder). In plaats daarvan moet NASA zich focussen op het afronden van de originele SLS.

Afbeelding
Afbeelding: NASA / MSFC.

Ook wil Trump niet langer geld steken in het Office of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Engagement, dat een educatieve functie heeft. Ook ruimtetelescoop WFIRST – die vorig jaar ook al buiten de boot viel in het budgetvoorstel van Trump, maar gered werd door het Congres – hoeft in 2019 niet op geld te rekenen.

De gelukkigen
Maar waar wordt de 21 miljard dan aan opgemaakt? Natuurlijk aan het stokpaardje van Trump: zo snel mogelijk mensen op de maan zetten. In het nieuwe budgetvoorstel wordt er nog steeds vanuit gegaan dat mensen in 2023 in ieder geval in de nabijheid van de maan worden gebracht en uiterlijk in 2028 voet op de maan zetten. Het vereist een verdere ontwikkeling en afronding van het Space Launch System en ruimtevaartuig Orion, maar ook de ontwikkeling van maanlanders en -rovers die het nodige voorbereidende werk en de nodige ondersteuning kunnen bieden aan die eerste maankolonisten. Ook wordt er geld vrijgemaakt voor de afronding van de nieuwe Marsrover (lancering in 2020) en de Europa Clipper (lancering in 2023, bestemming: Jupiters maan Europa). Bovendien wil Trump dat NASA gaat werken aan een Marsmissie waarbij materialen op Mars verzameld en terug naar de aarde worden gebracht. Ook voor de afronding van de James Webb-telescoop wordt geld vrijgemaakt.

ISS
Wat verder opvalt, is dat er ook budget is voor het internationale ruimtestation en dat daarbij niet gesproken wordt over een datum waarop het ISS niet langer op financiële steun van de Amerikanen hoeft te rekenen. Vorig jaar was dat nog anders: toen liet Trump in zijn budgetvoorstel weten in 2025 de geldkraan dicht te draaien. Het Congres was echter niet enthousiast over dat idee.

Bridenstine laat in een verklaring weten blij te zijn met het voorstel van Trump – dat nog goedgekeurd moet worden door het Congres. Hij verwacht een heel eind te komen met een dergelijk bedrag. “We zullen in het volgende decennium naar de maan gaan en met innovatieve, nieuwe technologieën en systemen meer locaties dan ooit op de maan verkennen. En wanneer we dit keer naar de maan gaan, zullen we daar ook blijven. We zullen alles wat we op de maan leren, gebruiken om de volgende stap te zetten en astronauten naar Mars te sturen.” Daarnaast is er geld voor andere missies die minstens net zo tot de verbeelding spreken. “We zullen het onbekende verkennen met missies naar Jupiters maan Europa en de lancering van de James Webb-ruimtetelescoop. We zullen blijven werken aan de eerste retourtrip naar de rode planeet met een Mars Sample Return.” Genoeg om naar uit te zien, dus.

https://www.scientias.nl/trump-gunt-nas ... rd-dollar/

Die Trump toch... icon_thumbup.gif
De Islam is een groot gevaar!
Jezus leeft maar Mohammed is dood (en in de hel)

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xplosive
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Berichtdoor xplosive » Vr Mar 22, 2019 12:38 am

Simulating Life on Mars in Israel's Desert



Het commentaar onder de video luidt :

Israel has launched a lunar probe, hoping to become the fourth country to have landed on the celestial body. Now, Israel is slowly turning its eyes toward a planet — Mars. With projects in the desert on agricultural sustenance and simulations of life on the Red Planet, colonization there may be sooner than it appears.
Gun jezelf wat je een ander toewenst     islam = racisme   & de hel op aarde voor mens en dier
                                   koran = racistisch & handboek voor criminelen
      Moslimlanden bewijzen dagelijks:    meer islam = meer verkrachte mensenrechten

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xplosive
Berichten: 7341
Lid geworden op: Do Jun 30, 2011 11:18 pm

Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Berichtdoor xplosive » Za Mar 23, 2019 11:21 pm

Gun jezelf wat je een ander toewenst     islam = racisme   & de hel op aarde voor mens en dier
                                   koran = racistisch & handboek voor criminelen
      Moslimlanden bewijzen dagelijks:    meer islam = meer verkrachte mensenrechten


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