Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Berichtdoor xplosive » Vr Jan 24, 2020 7:26 am

 

By Chris Ciaccia | Fox News | Thursday | January 23 2020, 1 PM

NASA's Curiosity rover, which celebrated its seventh anniversary on Mars in August and has made several remarkable discoveries, is stuck frozen on the Red Planet.

In a mission update earlier this week, the team operating the rover wrote that Curiosity recently lost its orientation during its last set of activities.

"Some knowledge of its attitude was not quite right, so it couldn't make the essential safety evaluation," Curiosity team member Dawn Sumner wrote in the post. "Thus, Curiosity stopped moving, freezing in place until its knowledge of its orientation can be recovered."

"Curiosity stores its body attitude in memory, things like the orientation of each joint, which instrument on the end of its arm is pointing down, and how close [Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer] it is to the ground," Sumner added.

Sumner added that Curiosity continues to send the team information so that they can work on a recovery plan. They're working on giving Curiosity its attitude and let the rover have the ability to make safety checks, as well as prevent this problem from happening in the future.

NASA hopes the Curiosity rover, which "has a few more years before its nuclear power system degrades enough to significantly limit operations," can provide additional clues about the planet prior to the launch of the Mars 2020 rover mission.

Year 2020 is poised to be a big one for the exploration of Mars. NASA will launch the Mars 2020 rover (renamed prior to launch) on July 17, joining the Curiosity rover and the now-deceased Opportunity rover on the Red Planet.

The Mars 2020 rover, expected to reach the Martian surface on Feb. 18, 2021, will detect if there is any fossilized evidence of extraterrestrial beings, in addition to other tasks. In 2019, Curiosity detected oxygen that "behaves in a way that so far scientists cannot explain."

Several months prior to that, the rover also detected an "unusually high" level of methane on Mars. On Earth, methane is produced both biologically and geologically, although it is not clear what caused the methane spike on Mars.

NASA’s long-term goal is to send a manned mission to Mars in the 2030s. However, former astronauts, including Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins, think we should skip a return mission to the Moon, slated for 2024, and "shoot directly for Mars."
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Berichtdoor Pilgrim » Di Jan 28, 2020 12:27 am

We're All Going to Live in Mushroom Houses on Mars

By Caroline Delbert, Jan 16, 2020

Afbeelding

See why NASA thinks fungi are the future.

  • Architectural fungus could be the secret to realistic Mars habitation plans.
  • The "turtle principle" means we'll have to carry everything we need to Mars, including furniture and all building materials.
  • Fungus grows fast, has versatile chemical properties, and can be used in a closed ecosystem in a Mars habitat.
_________________________________________________________

NASA is sharing information about its myco-architecture program, in which experimental fungus-based building technologies could be the feasible future of Mars habitats. “Science fiction often imagines our future on Mars and other planets as run by machines, with metallic cities and flying cars rising above dunes of red sand,” NASA says. “But the reality may be even stranger.”

The myco-architecture (myco is the prefix meaning “fungus”) NASA is excited about isn’t only a new way to make furniture, although it can do that, the agency says. Mushroom House—not its real name—is an integrated habitat with layers. The tough, complex fibers made by fungal mycelia are building blocks of furniture, interior walls, and the innermost layer of the outer shell. After that comes a layer of cyanobacteria, which photosynthesize water and CO₂ into “oxygen and fungus food.” The outermost layer in the model is solid ice, which is both protective and nourishing to the cyanobacteria below.

Afbeelding
Bricks produced using mycelium, yard waste, and wood chips as a part of the myco-architecture project. Similar materials could be used to build habitats on the Moon or Mars. -NASA
2018 Stanford-Brown-RISD iGEM Team


Bricks and other structures made using myco-architecture are lightweight, easily blended with reused materials like wood chips to make something like plywood, but with mushrooms. NASA pithily says sci-fi relies on shiny metal and flying cars, but the idea of organically grown housing or even spaceships goes back decades. And NASA isn’t alone in suggesting that fast-growing natural fibers are the future: In Kim Stanley Robinson’s 2018 novel Red Moon, bamboo forms the backbone of an international moon station where thousands of people live and work. Characters marvel at how much the plants grow within even just a day.

On the food podcast Check the Pantry, an Alaska mushroom farmer said once his mushroom cave has taken root, so to speak, new mushrooms can be harvested about every three to five days for the whole growing season. Some fungi grow so fast that scientists are attempting to slow them in order to better study and prevent environmental harm. Different kinds feed on decaying organic material or have symbiotic relationships with plants. The relationship in the NASA myco-architectural model resembles naturally occurring lichen, which are composite organisms made of cyanobacteria and different kinds of fungi.



The lab running the myco-architectural experiments explains that any travel to Mars will follow the so-called “turtle model”: If we want to live there, we have to carry everything with us in order to do that. (Remember what Matt Damon has to do in order to make nutritious soil for growing potatoes in The Martian?)

On our planet, scientists would build and seed a full-scale fungal Chia Pet house. “On Earth, a flexible plastic shell produced to the final habitat dimensions would be seeded with mycelia and dried feedstock and the outside sterilized. [...] At destination, the mycelial and feedstock material would be moistened with water and heated, initiating fungal growth.”

Inside the Chia Mushroom House, myco-architecture research lead Lynn Rothschild says the fungi could be biologically tuned to make all kinds of other materials like bioplastics and latex. The fungal materials are insulating, self-repairing, fire-retardant, and with the right melanin levels, reflective of incoming radiation. Finally, science is catching up to what Mario and friends have known since 1988’s Super Mario Bros. 3: A Mushroom House bestows a valuable bonus.

https://www.popularmechanics.com/space/ ... 7l4TK5ysoU
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Berichtdoor Ali Yas » Di Jan 28, 2020 9:21 pm

Bouwen op Mars is geen probleem, luchtdicht bouwen tegen een drukverschil van tien ton per vierkante meter wel.
Truth sounds like hate to those who hate truth.

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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Berichtdoor xplosive » Do Feb 06, 2020 3:16 am

 
 


By Nirmal Narayanan, Updated February 5, 2020 19:44 +08

Space agencies like NASA and private space companies such as SpaceX led by Elon Musk have been trying their best to make humans an interplanetary species, and in order to achieve this, they aim to colonize Mars.

However, reaching Mars is not an easy task, and experts believe that it will take at least 150 to 300 days to reach the Red Planet.

Humans could reach Mars in just five days
Now, scientist Paul Laviolette has claimed that humans could reach Mars within five days. Laviolette claimed that humans should embrace the concept of electrogravitics to reach Mars in less than a week.

It was a scientist named Thomas Townsend Brown who spent much of his life researching possibilities surrounding electrogravitics. The idea behind this theory is creating an anti-gravity force generated by an electric field's effect on a mass. Laviolette claimed that the same technique could help humans to reach the Red Planet quickly.

"In my book, I talked about going to Mars in five days, we could go quicker, I didn't want to make it sound too unbelievable. Townsend Brown's electrokinetic thrusters and the umbrella-like device has a big positive electrode and a small negative. He's got an insulator in between, like barium titanate. These have been shown to produce 70,000 newtons-per-kilowatt, that's 5,000 times more thrust for energy input than a jet engine," said Laviolette while talking with George Noory in the Beyond Belief chat show.

Laviolette added that he could build the flying vessel if space agencies give him $15 million. However, sceptics feel the plan will not work, as the entire concept of the flying vessel is against the laws of modern physics.

Mars colony will be based on direct democracy
As the plans to colonize Mars are progressing steadily, Musk had claimed that the government that will be set up on the Red Planet will be based on direct democracy. Musk added that he will live on Mars despite narrow chances of survival.

"We've recently made a number of breakthroughs that I am just really fired up about. I'm talking about moving there. Your probability of dying on Mars is much higher than on Earth. There's a good chance of death. There are lots of people who climb mountains. People die on Mount Everest all the time. They still like doing it for the challenge," said Musk.

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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Berichtdoor xplosive » Zo Feb 09, 2020 7:10 pm

 

By Carlo Inigo Monzon, February 7, 2020 14:53

A space tech company suggested a way on how funerals can be held on Mars if a member of a human colony dies. The funeral plans unveiled by the company involves the use of a special garment for the dead and a recycling process that would turn the body of the deceased into raw materials.

The idea of having funerals in Martian human colonies was developed by Analgos LLC, the space tech firm that participated in a simulated Mars mission in Hawaii in January. The company believes that since funerals are essential parts of the grieving rituals of humans, they should also be practised on Mars once a colony has been established.

Martian Death Garment
One of the main components of the Martian funeral is a special garment designed for the deceased. For this aspect, the company's CEO JJ Hastings partnered with fashion designer Pia Interlandi to develop the Martian death garment, which is part of the latter's "Garments of the Grave" collection.

The special clothing designed by Interlandi consists of four layers that are all 100 percent biodegradable. The entire garment looks like a tunic with layers of wraps. Each of the layers is made from silkworm proteins. Making the layers biodegradable would allow the entire garment to decompose with the body to minimize waste on Mars.

Funeral Rituals On Mars
According to Interlandi, she decided to make a multi-layered garment to pay tribute to the funeral and grieving rituals of various cultures. She noted that dressing up the deceased in various layers would allow the grieving parties to get closer to the body.

"The closing of the coffin is often too abrupt and too hard and too sudden," she told Space.com. "We need to have a process where we can slowly veil and conceal the body so that it's a softer, more gentle kind of fading out."

Recycling The Corpses
After the funeral, the corpse of the deceased will then undergo a special process that would essentially recycle it. Although Hastings did not go into detail regarding the actual recycling process, she noted that it would decompose the body and turn it into raw materials.

Since the body is made up of various vital minerals such as salt, carbon and water, extracting these elements through recycling will be very important on Mars. Although the entire process seems macabre, minimizing waste will be an important aspect of a Mars colony's sustainability.
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Berichtdoor xplosive » Di Feb 11, 2020 3:12 am

 

By Ciaran McGrath, published: 13:14, Mon, Feb 10, 2020 | UPDATED: 14:37, Mon, Feb 10, 2020

A prototype of a British-built plasma-powered rocket engine which could propel spacecraft at 100,000mph, thus halving journey times to Mars, has been tested successfully in the UK. And Pulsar Fusion ultimately hopes to construct an engine capable of powering rockets travelling at a staggering 500,000mph. Pulsar, a privately owned nuclear fusion firm based in Bletchley in Milton Keynes, has constructed a miniature version of the thruster - and the trial opens up a range of tantalising possibilities, as well as underscoring the importance to post-Brexit Britain of the soaring space sector, which also celebrated the launch of the Solar Orbiter spacecraft earlier today.

Pulsar's CEO, Richard Dinan, a former star of Channel 4 reality show Made in Chelsea, said: "I see Nuclear Fusion as a sector that will sweep in a whole host of innovation – it is not just power station technology. Propulsion is possibly even a natural first step, over powering the national grid, on the road towards commercial fusion. At Pulsar, we develop and invest in several promising components and technologies, each with nuclear fusion at their heart."

Head of operations at Pulsar, Dr James Lambert added: "This first round of tests is designed to locate our concept in space design and explore state of the art electric propulsion. It included electrical and vacuum subsystem validation, as well as using a materials testing suite to establish flight parameters and minimum viable product specifications for the new generation of thruster engines."

Conventional rockets have a maximum exhaust speed of around 40,000mph, meaning a journey to Mars, as envisaged by billionaire entrepreneur and would-be colonist Elon Musk, would take six months for a one-way trip.

However, a nuclear fusion engine would mean such a journey could be completed in half that time, as well as improving the feasibility of expeditions beyond the solar system.

Pulsar's thruster is capable of achieving ten times the efficiency of a conventional chemical rocket, by putting vast amounts of energy into argon gas, the propellant, to produce a high temperature plasma similar to that which is found in a nuclear fusion reactor.

An electromagnetic field is then used to shoot out the plasma at colossal speeds, potentially powering superfast journeys.

The device has been built as part of Pulsar's initiative to design and build a larger, hotter thruster that will utilise nuclear fusion power in a bid to create exhaust speeds in excess of 500,000 mph.

Speaking to Express.co.uk in June, Mr Dinan said: "Fusion offers exhaust speeds much faster than possible with combustion rockets and with more power than ion thrusters. These can halve mission times to Mars. If humanity is ever going to achieve the dream of traveling beyond our solar system, we absolutely need fusion rockets. Not only does nuclear fusion have the potential to solve the world's energy crisis but it will also lead to countless other technological innovations not least the tantalising possibility of high speed space travel. Nuclear has a bad name because humans initially used its power to create weapons, but there is a totally safe, clean other side to it that is demonstrated by the stars. The same technology that allowed us to do the worst thing we have ever done, will give us the ability to do the best thing we will ever do, generate abundant, powerful clean energy. Pulsar Fusion was set up out of a relationship with a lot of nuclear physicists who know the science is there now. Why should something that is possible today wait for tomorrow?"

Pulsar's success was announced hours after the Solar Orbiter spacecraft took off from Cape Canaveral in Florida.

The mission will take the most detailed images ever of the Sun and provide crucial information about how our star's volatile activity affects its atmosphere, helping improve predictions related to solar flares and other space weather.

Business Secretary Andrea Leadsom said: "Solar storms could cause major disruptions to technologies including our energy grid, mobile phone signal and navigation systems. This new mission demonstrates the UK's leading role in the global space industry, while supporting our economy, creating jobs and helping establish the UK as a global science superpower."

A Government-commissioned report published last year suggested the UK space industry was worth £14.8billion in 2016/17, a growth rate of 3.3 percent per annum.
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Berichtdoor Pilgrim » Di Feb 11, 2020 4:11 am

Elon Musk: Moving to Mars will cost less than $500,000, ‘maybe even below $100,000’

Catherine Clifford - Published Mon, Feb 11 201912:33 PM EST

Afbeelding
Elon Musk speaks near a Falcon 9 rocket during his announcement that Japanese billionaire Yusaku Maezawa will be the first private passenger who will fly around the Moon aboard the SpaceX BFR launch vehicle.
DAVID MCNEW | AFP | Getty Images


Elon Musk says he is “confident” moving to Mars will “one day” cost less than $500,000 and “maybe even” cost below $100,000.

While the final cost is “very dependent on [the] volume” of travelers, Musk said the cost of moving to Mars will be “low enough that most people in advanced economies could sell their home on Earth [and] move to Mars if they want.” (The median home price in the U.S. is $223,900, according to Zillow.)

The comment was part of a Twitter thread announcing the Raptor engine (the engine which will power the rocket’s travels to Mars) has achieved the “power level needed for Starship and Super Heavy”.

The Starship is the rocket (formerly called the BFR rocket) that SpaceX is building to go to Mars. The Raptor is the rocket engine that SpaceX is making to power the Starship. The Starship will have seven Raptor engines and the booster that launches the rocketship, called Super Heavy, will have 31 Raptor engines, a SpaceX spokesperson tells CNBC Make It.

The “aspirational goal” for SpaceX is to send the first rocket to Mars (with cargo only) in 2022, according to SpaceX’s website. The second mission, which will take more cargo and crew, is aiming to go in 2024.

“The objectives for the first mission will be to confirm water resources, identify hazards, and put in place initial power, mining, and life support infrastructure,” SpaceX website says. The second mission has “primary objectives of building a propellant depot and preparing for future crew flights. The ships from these initial missions will also serve as the beginnings of the first Mars base, from which we can build a thriving city and eventually a self-sustaining civilization on Mars.”

In an article published in academic journal New Space in 2017, Musk also compared the price of trip to Mars to buying a house. At the time, he estimated trips to Mars would cost about $140,000 per ton (taking into account transporting things like luggage, food and life support). But he said at the time he believed the cost could potentially drop to below $100,000 a ton.

“It gets to the point where almost anyone, if they saved up and this was their goal, could buy a ticket and move to Mars — and given that Mars would have a labor shortage for a long time, jobs would not be in short supply,” he said.

Musk has said there is a 70 percent chance he himself will go to Mars, once SpaceX gets “the price per ticket to maybe around a couple hundred thousand dollars,” he told Axios in a November interview.



To be sure, being a pioneer on the red planet is not going to be an adventure for the faint of heart.

“It’s gonna be hard, there’s a good chance of death, going in a little can through deep space, you might land successfully, once you land successfully you’ll be working non-stop to build the base — so not much time for leisure — and once you get there, even after all this, there’s a very harsh environment, so there’s a good chance you’ll die there. We think you can come back but we’re not sure,” Musk told Axios.

Perhaps that’s why Musk tweeted on Sunday that the return trip from Mars will be free.

https://www.cnbc.com/2019/02/11/elon-mu ... LB6o1ABOK8
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Berichtdoor Pilgrim » Zo Feb 16, 2020 1:08 am

NASA $25 Billion Budget For Mars
15-2-2020



Mars Expedition Colony 2033 - Space Travel Documentary



What Would A Million Person Mars Colony Look Like?
7 feb. 2020



Elon Musk Mars City by 2050
3 apr. 2019

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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Berichtdoor Pilgrim » Do Feb 27, 2020 3:01 am

Elon Musk’s Plan to Settle Mars

By Robert Zubrin - February 22, 2020 4:30 AM

Afbeelding
SpaceX founder Elon Musk speaks at a news conference after the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket carrying the Crew Dragon spacecraft lifted off on an uncrewed test flight from the Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla., March 2, 2019. (Mike Blake/Reuters)

First, how to transport passengers there? He’s building the fleet.

He who follows Freedom, let him leave his homeland, and risk his life.
— Adam Mickiewicz, Polish poet, 1832

Last week my wife Hope and I traveled to Boca Chica, Texas, to meet with Elon Musk. While we talked inside the SpaceX onsite headquarters, a mariachi band played outside, providing entertainment for long lines of people queued up to apply for multiple categories of jobs building craft to take humans to Mars. Hundreds were already hired and at work in the complex. Soon there will be thousands.

Musk calls his design the “Starship.” It’s a methane/oxygen-driven, stainless-steel, two-stage-to-orbit rocket with a payload capacity equal to the Saturn V booster that sent Apollo astronauts to the Moon. The Saturn V, however, was expendable, with each unit destroyed in the course of a single use. Starship will be fully reusable, like an airliner, and therefore promises a radical reduction in payload-delivery costs.

Starship has yet to be demonstrated. Yet here was Musk, building not the first experimental ship to prove the concept but, as we witnessed touring the place the next day, a shipyard and a fleet. Is he mad? According to conventional aerospace-industry thinking he certainly is. But there is a method to his madness.

I have known Musk for some two decades now. In 2001, I was among those who helped convince him to make Mars his calling. His plan is based to a significant degree on my own work, which is generally known as the Mars Direct plan. Published in 1990 and elaborated in detail in 1996 in my book The Case for Mars, Mars Direct was a radical break with previous NASA thinking on how human Mars missions might be accomplished. But Musk’s Starship plan is far more radical still.

With the exception of a period in the 1990s when NASA, under the guidance of Mike Griffin, the associate administrator for exploration, did embrace an expanded version of Mars Direct, the space agency has stuck with a paradigm set forth by Wernher von Braun in a number of variations between 1948 and 1969. According to those ideas, orbital stations should first be built, providing platforms for on-orbit construction of giant interplanetary spaceships using advanced propulsion systems, which would travel from Earth orbit (or currently, rather more absurdly, lunar orbit) to Mars orbit. Departing from these orbital motherships, small landing craft could take crews down to the Martian surface to plant the flag, make a few footprints, and then return to orbit after a short stay.

In contrast, both Mars Direct and the Starship plan use direct flights from Earth orbit to the surface of Mars, with direct return from the surface to Earth using methane/oxygen propellant made on the Red Planet from local materials. Both plans shun any need for orbital infrastructure, orbital construction, interplanetary motherships, specialized small landing craft, or advanced propulsion. Both involve long duration stays on Mars from the very first mission. For both, the central purpose of the mission is not to fly to Mars but to accomplish something serious there.

But there is a difference. In Mars Direct, the modest earth-return vehicle and the crew’s habitation module both stage off the booster that delivers them to orbit, landing on the Red Planet with a combined useful-habitation-plus-payload-mass of about 40 tons. In Musk’s plan, a Starship is flown to orbit and then refueled there by six tanker Starships, after which the whole ship is flown the Mars, delivering a useful habitation-plus-payload mass of as much as 200 tons. So, while the Mars Direct plan might send crews of four to six astronauts at a time to the Red Planet, a Starship could accommodate 50 or more.

Musk’s plan offers more mission capability than Mars Direct does, but that capability comes with a price. Specifically, if the crew is to come back, you need to refuel a Starship, which needs about 1,000 tons of propellant. In the Mars Direct plan, the much more modest earth-return vehicle sent to the Red Planet in advance of the crew requires only 100 tons. The Mars surface-power and other base requirements needed to support Starship operations are a factor of ten higher than those needed to implement Mars Direct.

So a large base needs to be built in advance, with several Starships sent one-way to Mars and loaded with lots of base equipment, ten football fields’ worth of solar panels, and robots to set it all up. Not until all that is in place can the first crew carrying Starship arrive. That makes the system suboptimal for exploration. But exploration is not what Musk has in mind.

If Mars Direct may be likened to an evolvable version of the Apollo program, Musk’s plan is like D-Day. He needs a fleet. So he’s creating a shipyard to build a fleet. But why build a fleet before testing even one ship? There are several reasons. The first is that Musk wants to be prepared to take losses. By the time the first Starship is ready for its maiden test flight, he’ll have three or four more already built and on deck, ready to be modified to fix whatever caused the first to fail. Launch, crash, fix, and repeat, until it works, and then keep launching, improving payload and cutting turnaround time, advancing performance, flight by flight, ferociously.

But there is another reason to build a fleet. It’s to make Starships cheap. NASA built five space shuttles over a twelve-year period, each one costing several billion dollars. Musk is creating a shipyard designed to ultimately mass-produce Starships at a rate of 50 or more per year. That may sound crazy, but it is not impossible. In 1944, the United States produced escort aircraft carriers at a rate of one per week. Scores of separate teams worked simultaneously, each on its own part of the ship for a few days before passing the job on to the next team. If Musk set up a similar line with a workforce of 3,000, that would mean labor costs on the order of $6 million per ship, or between $15 to $20 million each, with materials and avionics included.

If he can get costs that low, then once the base on Mars is operational, with a growing industrial and greenhouse agricultural capacity, Starships carrying 100 passengers each could fly to Mars and stay there if necessary to provide housing, at a hardware cost per passenger of less than $200,000. So make the ticket price $300,000 — the net worth of a typical homeowner, or about seven years’ pay for an average American. In colonial times, working stiffs booked passage to America in exchange for seven years’ work. It’s a price many people can pay — and have paid — when they really want to make a move. All that is needed besides is Liberty to welcome the immigrants — if she is there, they will come, and prosper through their creativity.

On this latter point, Musk and I agree. An extraterrestrial settlement is unlikely to be able to produce a profit by export of any material commodity to Earth. The transport costs are simply too great, and so the numbers in business plans based on such concepts just don’t add up. But intellectual property is another matter altogether, as it can be transmitted across interplanetary distances nearly cost-free. Bit for bit, the highest value any data can have is that contained in a patent. A Mars colony will be composed of a very technically adept population in a frontier environment where they will be free to innovate and forced to innovate. It will be like 19th-century America, only much more so, a pressure cooker for invention. As historian Frederick Jackson Turner pointed out in his famous essay “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” (1893), an analogous situation made youthful America the most inventive culture ever, with Yankee Ingenuity bringing the world the blessings of electricity, steamboats, telegraphs, labor-saving machinery, recorded sound, light bulbs, telephones, centrally generated electric power — and shortly after he wrote, airplanes and mass-produced automobiles. So, to meet its needs, hard-driven and bureaucracy-free Martian Ingenuity can be expected to produce revolutionary advances in robotics, artificial intelligence, genetically modified organisms, synthetic biology, and many other fields. These inventions, created to meet the necessities of Mars, could be licensed as patents on Earth, bringing in the income needed to fund those imports of complex systems, which unlike bulk materials like food, fabric, fuel, steel, aluminum, glass, and plastic, may be too difficult to make on Mars for some time to come.

Right now, Musk is laser-focused on creating his shipyard, a task he sees as far more central than that of simply perfecting the Starship. But there are many more problems that Musk will need to solve to make all this work. On-orbit refilling of cryogenic propellant tanks has yet to be demonstrated, and Mars in situ propellant production technology, while well understood, is still not ready for use. Starships returning from Mars will encounter much greater heating loads than will vehicles simply reentering from Earth orbit. The lightweight thermal protection that suffices for one might not work for the other. The rocket-exhaust plumes of the massive Starships could create dangerous craters during landings, forcing Musk to adopt a Mars Direct–type plan, staging smaller vehicles, perhaps mini-Starships, off the Starship in Earth orbit. I believe that this consideration, combined with the very large power requirement for refueling a full-size Starship on the Red Planet, may ultimately force him to develop a miniature version of the Starship. Such a “Mini” could be lifted to Earth orbit by a Starship and then staged off it to complete the mission Mars Direct–style, allowing the Starship to return to Earth to be flown to orbit again within a few days. The Mini could also be launched independently, as a reusable upper stage for SpaceX’s already operational Falcon 9, giving the company a fully reusable medium-lift launch capability as well. Musk prefers a doing everything with a single design. We shall see if he can pull it off.

NASA’s operating budget is more than ten times that of Musk’s SpaceX, which, however, is rapidly passing it by. The space agency’s much delayed heavy-lift launch vehicle, now known as SLS, was a reasonable design for a near-term shuttle-derived booster when it was first proposed in 1988. But it is showing up a generation too late, with less payload-delivery capability than Starship’s, and costing about 50 times as much per flight. NASA says it is engaged in an “all hands on deck” effort to land astronauts on the Moon by 2024, but there is little chance that it will, because it has dreamed up a hyper-complex plan that involves building a lunar orbiting space station first and then employing four launches, five flight elements, and six rendezvous operations per mission. While this approach offers the political benefits of giving as many players as possible a piece of the action, the operability of the plan is very questionable.

NASA’s Mars-mission design is even worse. It involves basing a huge ion-drive Deep Space Transport at the lunar-orbit space station and then flying the DST to another space station, one that, the agency claims, needs to be built in orbit around Mars. Transit times from lunar orbit to Mars orbit for this futuristic system is 300 days each way — nearly twice that the Spirit and Opportunity rovers needed to make the trip to from Earth to the Red Planet beginning in 2003. Moreover, unlike Spirit and Opportunity, the DST would not land.

If you want to either explore or settle Mars, you need to land on Mars. The goal of the DST plan, however, is neither exploration nor settlement. It is expenditure. Rather than offer the simplest and most efficient path to the Red Planet, the DST architecture offers the most complex, in order to provide “rationales” (N.b.: not reasons) for as many new technology-development programs as possible.

Musk’s approach is the opposite. NASA’s program is vendor-driven. His is purpose-driven. He is not concerned with justifying expenditures on a raft of “potentially useful” technologies. He wants to get his program done with the least amount of new development. His attitude is “Show me why I need it.” He may push this too far. As noted, I believe he would be wise to develop a Mini-Starship to reduce the power requirements for making return fuel on Mars. He disagrees. “Show me,” he says. Our conclusions on that point diverge, but I really love the way he thinks.

It’s the kind of thinking that can get us to Mars.

Afbeelding
Elon Musk and Robert Zubrin (Courtesy of Hope Zubrin)

Robert Zubrin, an aerospace engineer, is the founder of the Mars Society and the president of Pioneer Astronautics. His latest book is The Case for Space: How the Revolution in Spaceflight Opens Up a Future of Limitless Possibility. @robert_zubrin

https://www.nationalreview.com/2020/02/ ... jpPS0i7GNA
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Berichtdoor Pilgrim » Di Mar 03, 2020 10:05 pm

Prachtige filmpjes die je een impressie geven van hoe je een reis door de ruimte (in dit geval bij de maan) kan ervaren. Zullen onze nakomelingen ooit tripjes naar de maan kunnen maken op dezelfde manier als wij vliegreizen maken? Let ook op de muziek! (Dus speakers aan.)

Apollo 13 Views of the Moon in 4K
24 feb. 2020



Earthrise - Planet Earth Seen From The Moon - Real Time Journey Across The Lunar Surface
20 jun. 2018

De Islam is een groot gevaar!
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xplosive
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Berichtdoor xplosive » Do Mar 05, 2020 7:36 am

 

Alison DeNisco Rayome, March 3, 2020 5:00 AM PST

A pristine white rocket stirs up the dusty terracotta surface of Mars, coming in for a smooth landing. A hatch opens, and two rovers make their way across the rugged orange-red terrain. There are no humans -- at least, not yet. But this is one small step -- or a short wheel roll -- to a new world that could be our future home.

I'm playing Surviving Mars, a 2018 survival strategy game from Tropico developers Haemimont Games and Paradox Interactive. The goal? Build the infrastructure to sustain human life on the red planet.
Video games and virtual reality simulations are bringing the average person closer than ever to experiencing life on Mars. For many, these pop culture tours make the actual missions to colonize the planet proposed both by NASA and private companies like Elon Musk's SpaceX feel more achievable.

These games, along with other pop culture representations of Mars, have vastly increased interest in human missions to Mars, said James Burk, IT director of the space advocacy nonprofit the Mars Society. In particular, the 2015 movie adaptation of the novel The Martian was a major turning point in piquing public curiosity in colonizing the planet. And now, SpaceX's plan to send an unmanned mission to Mars as soon as 2022 "is throwing gasoline on it all," he added.

"It's getting easier all the time to tell the story of sending people to Mars because now we have all these tools," Burk said. "People are more accepting of that reality now."
"It's a game, but we wanted to make it plausible fiction and ground it in existing science," Dyankov said. The team consulted with a NASA worker on the core elements of the game during early builds, but chose to forgo some elements of realism for the sake of fun gameplay, he added.
Occupy Mars seeks to replicate the Mars experience from a different perspective.

While Surviving Mars is a colony-building strategy game, Occupy Mars is an open world sandbox game due out in the next few months that will give you the first-person experience of life on the planet. As a player, you build and update your base, discover new regions and generally try to survive, said Jacek Wyszyński, CEO and CTO of development studio Pyramid Games, based in Poland.

In college, Wyszyński dreamed of building rockets for SpaceX, until he learned that certain US laws, for national security reasons, prohibit international applicants from applying for roles at companies that work with rockets. Instead, he turned to building rockets in video games.

Occupy Mars developers consulted with the Mars Society and researched NASA resources to build the game so that the basic elements are similar to what you'd really find on Mars.

The game takes place about 50 years in the future, so the technology involved is more advanced than what we currently have, like supercharged 3D printing. But basic requirements for a working Martian base -- water, power, oxygen, heating, pressure regulation and radiation shields -- are all present, though simplified.

Like with Surviving Mars, the key was to balance realism with playability, Wyszyński said. "Initially, we wanted it to be as realistic as possible, but over the years of development we learned that the most important thing for the player is cool gameplay -- if it's too realistic, it's going to be boring," he added. For example, early feedback was that players didn't want to spend six hours building a corridor -- they wanted to get it done fast, and go exploring.
The Mars Society's Mars Desert Research Station in southern Utah has hosted more than 200 crews of six-person teams of researchers and students, who live for a week or two on the station, simulating life on the Martian surface. They explore the desert in full spacesuits, maintain the station's water systems, grow plants, and recycle their waste water. (Hey, no one said desert space travel was glamorous.)

To make these missions more accessible, the organization is developing MarsVR -- an open-source VR platform that brings viewers to the desert base to explore the landscape.

The platform, releasing later this year, will be both an educational tool that anyone with a VR headset can download, and a training tool for crews before they arrive at the Mars Desert Research Station. MarsVR will allow crew members to virtually practice living on the station -- learning how to put on a spacesuit, operate the air lock and rovers, and cook freeze-dried food, all before stepping foot on the base, Burk said. You'll also be able to explore a square mile of the terrain around the base. From an engineering perspective, it's what it would actually be like to build a Mars colony and walk around, he added.

"Every second there is precious," Burk said. "So if they know where everything is ahead of time, it makes it better."
"VR has the capacity of mirroring the real world, and it's only getting better," Reyes said. "There's no closer analog to training astronauts for these missions than using these simulation tools, because they provide the closest experience possible to achieving that."

Games and VR may not yet be advanced enough to fully simulate life on Mars alone. But they do have the power to spark the interest of young people who will grow up to be the astronauts who do step foot on the red planet, according to Dyankov of the Surviving Mars game.

"The best result of our game would definitely not be how many copies it sells," Dyankov said. "It's if we can imagine 30 or 50 years from now, somebody on Mars says, 'For me it all started with this game when I was a kid.'"
Gun jezelf wat je een ander toewenst     islam = racisme   & de hel op aarde voor mens en dier
                                   koran = racistisch & handboek voor criminelen
      Moslimlanden bewijzen dagelijks:    meer islam = meer verkrachte mensenrechten

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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Berichtdoor xplosive » Za Mar 07, 2020 12:51 am

 

By Michael Thomson for Dailymail.com, published: 02:19 GMT, 6 March 2020 | updated: 08:54 GMT, 6 March 2020

A group of university researchers have partnered with NASA to build the technology for a self-sustaining, zero-waste human settlement on Mars.

Called the Center for the Utilization of Biological Engineering in Space, or CUBES, the team is made up of scientists, researchers, and students from UC Berkeley, UC Davis, Utah State and the Planetary Science Institute.

Adam Arkin, a Bioengineering professor at UC Berkeley who serves as CUBE's director, says the team wanted to give astronauts the means to grow their own food and harvest resources using materials available in whatever environment they may end up on.

To start with, they decided to first focus on developing tools for such a settlement on Mars.

'The idea is to be able to produce food, pharmaceuticals, and light building materials using waste recycling and the resources that are already there,' Arkin said.

Resources are scant on Mars, limited to just sunlight, atmosphere, ice water, loose dirt on the surface, called regolith, and human waste from astronauts themselves.

"The CUBES system should be able to support nine astronauts for their food and pharmaceutical needs over nearly a year on-planet using nothing but sunlight and carbon dioxide," Arkin told Forbes.

To accommodate for these environmental challenges, the team has been experimenting with modified crops that could survive the harsh environment.

Because Mars is further from the sun than Earth, there's less than half as much sunlight available on the planet surface, making photosynthesis more challenging for plants.

To compensate, the team has experimented with gene editing different types of crops, including rice, potatoes, and lettuce, to be able to convert energy from a wider spectrum of light.

The team is also working on gene edited variations of lettuce, potatoes and other crops to have biopharmaceutical properties, to ensure astronauts are as healthy as possible.

The team also has a plan to harvest methane from human waste, which will then be used to produce biopolymers that can be used to fuel 3D printers.

Other human waste will be used as feedstock for various microbial systems around the theoretical settlement.

Another avenue of research is an effort to try and detoxify the Martian soil, which contains a number of hazardous chemicals, including perchlorate, which makes it impossible to grow crops.

The project's radical aims are unlikely to be fully realized any time soon, but Arkin believes the research could be just as helpful for humans on Earth facing new challenges from climate change.

'Mars is an example of an already desertified planet,' he said. 'If you look at our planet, temperatures are rising at extremely high rates.'

'Our job now is to build a technology that can work on both new planets and Earth as it evolves.'

    WHAT ARE NASA'S PLANS FOR A MANNED MISSION TO MARS IN THE 2030s?

    Mars has become the next giant leap for mankind's exploration of space.

    But before humans get to the red planet, astronauts will take a series of small steps by returning to the moon for a year-long mission.

    Details of a the mission in lunar orbit have been unveiled as part of a timeline of events leading to missions to Mars in the 2030s.

    In May 2017, Greg Williams, deputy associate administrator for policy and plans at Nasa, outlined the space agency's four stage plan that it hopes will one day allow humans to visit Mars, as well as its expected time-frame.

    Phase one and two will involve multiple trips to lunar space, to allow for construction of a habitat which will provide a staging area for the journey.

    The last piece of delivered hardware would be the actual Deep Space Transport vehicle that would later be used to carry a crew to Mars.

    And a year-long simulation of life on Mars will be conducted in 2027.

    Phase three and and four will begin after 2030 and will involve sustained crew expeditions to the Martian system and surface of Mars.
     
     

     
Gun jezelf wat je een ander toewenst     islam = racisme   & de hel op aarde voor mens en dier
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Berichtdoor Pilgrim » Za Mar 07, 2020 3:45 am

Elon Musk Wants to Build a New Starship Every 72 Hours So He Can Colonize Mars

Very doable!

By Caroline Delbert - Mar 5, 2020

Afbeelding

  • Sometime surprisingly soon (not soon), a thousand spaceships could colonize Mars.
  • Elon Musk wants to make sure any Mars journey is well stocked and as safe as possible.
  • This extremely unlikely plan involves making the most powerful spacecraft ever and the first that's fully reusable.
Elon Musk is bulking up his rocket-building workforce—big time. Ars Technica visited the Texas home of SpaceX, where Musk was calling a meeting on a Sunday “morning” at 1 a.m. There's a lot to unpack here.

To start, Musk is worried that our window of opportunity to make it to Mars is closing—so we better hurry up. After the 1 a.m. meeting, SpaceX added over 250 new employees in two days, representing a full doubling of the workforce.

Ars Technica visited the day after the major Starship prototype implosion that made news earlier this week. The SN1 prototype blew up as a direct result of weak welds. It sounds like everyone involved knew this prototype was faulty and told Musk so when he asked, and he insists it was never designed to fly for real anyway.

It’s worrying, though, because “SpaceX is designing its factory here to build a Starship every 72 hours,” Ars Technica reports. This means its facility in Texas has to include huge windbreaks—think of the enormous, sky-high protective nets at some driving ranges, but solid—in order to be able to safely stack Starships. “I think we need, probably, on the order of 1,000 ships, and each of those ships would have more payload than the Saturn V—and be reusable,” Musk said.

Let’s break that down, because it’s bonkers.

Right now, there’s no reusable rocket, period, and there never has been. The Space Shuttle was the first reusable spacecraft, which is a different thing and an important distinction. The shuttle launched vertically like a rocket (as opposed to a horizontal airplane- or jet-type takeoff), but shed enormous disposable rocket boosters and fuel tanks as soon as it got into orbit.

Saturn V, the rocket that delivered people to the moon, was the most powerful rocket ever built at the time, designed to carry a lot—i.e., all of its boosters and fuel and the capacity for 90,000 pounds of payload. Some rockets can carry heavier payloads, but these have gone to low-earth orbit almost exclusively since countries stopped sending people to the moon. Musk is making a historic ask in more ways than one.

Musk's thinking might be, well, a moonshot, but his opinions and plans are pragmatic for the future he imagines for humanity.

If we want to live on more than one planet long term, Musk says, the settlements everywhere have to be stable and sustainable, even if the next supply ship is delayed or never materializes at all. And in that sense, stocking the planet with 1,000 ships means a depth and breadth of supplies that’s far beyond what most existing ideas can manage.

With 1,000 ships, you could have one (or five!) that only carry nutritious soil. You could have dozens that only carry liquefied, breathable air. Ninety million pounds is the amount of just fertilizer that Americans apply each year. It's so much to be able to carry into space, but it's very little by Earth terms.

“Success is not assured,” Musk told Ars Technica. It’s poetic to use a big understatement to describe what’s perhaps the most ambitious project people have spent real money and time developing in this way. But one of the secrets of Musk’s undisputed success is how much you end up rooting for his vision.

https://www.popularmechanics.com/scienc ... yX8W9HUhTY
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Berichtdoor Pilgrim » Zo Mar 08, 2020 8:51 pm

Curiosity Mars Rover Snaps 1.8 Billion-Pixel Panorama (narrated video)
4 mrt. 2020

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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Berichtdoor Mahalingam » Vr Mar 13, 2020 5:55 pm

Over het The ExoMars "Rosalind Franklin" vehicle, een gezamelijk project van EU, UK en USA. USA liep weg en de Russen kwamen binnen.
Het is dus zo'n technisch project met heel veel bemoeienis van politici. En dan krijg je altijd dit soort dingen (zie overheid en ITC):
First envisaged as a small technology demonstration mission, the robot vehicle was formally approved by European nations back in 2005, with a launch first pencilled in for 2011.

Then, as ambitions grew and the design was beefed up, the start date was put back. At first, it was shifted to 2013, but further problems saw slippage to 2016, and then again to 2018.

For much of its history, the rover project, codenamed ExoMars, has had to fumble through with budgets that were insufficient to maintain the promised timelines.
At one stage, back in 2009, Esa decided to join forces with America to try to make the mission happen, only to see Nasa walk away three years later when its priorities changed.
That could have killed the project there and then, but for an offer from the Russians to fill the partnership position vacated by the US.
Even with this fresh impetus, however, the project continued to stumble. The Esa-Roscosmos 2018 target gave way to 2020. Now the launch date is being moved again.
The rover has been an important component of British space policy. The UK is the second biggest contributor to the ExoMars programme.
https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-51844030

In 2005 bedacht, wordt nu gelanceerd in 2022.
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Berichtdoor Pilgrim » Zo Mar 15, 2020 3:02 am

Een paar leuke filmpjes over bizarre rotsformaties in het Martiaanse landschap. Ik zelf geloof niet echt in de wilde speculaties over deze eigenaardige rotsformaties, maar het geeft wel goed weer hoe vreemd en bizar zo'n buitenaards landschap overkomt.

Strange Anomalies of Mars. Amazing finds Part.4
6 mrt. 2020



Новые находки на Марсе (часть 2).Признаки обитания![New finds on Mars (part 2).Signs of habitation!]
6 mei 2017

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