Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

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By Chris Ciaccia | Fox News | Thursday | January 23 2020, 1 PM

NASA's Curiosity rover, which celebrated its seventh anniversary on Mars in August and has made several remarkable discoveries, is stuck frozen on the Red Planet.

In a mission update earlier this week, the team operating the rover wrote that Curiosity recently lost its orientation during its last set of activities.

"Some knowledge of its attitude was not quite right, so it couldn't make the essential safety evaluation," Curiosity team member Dawn Sumner wrote in the post. "Thus, Curiosity stopped moving, freezing in place until its knowledge of its orientation can be recovered."

"Curiosity stores its body attitude in memory, things like the orientation of each joint, which instrument on the end of its arm is pointing down, and how close [Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer] it is to the ground," Sumner added.

Sumner added that Curiosity continues to send the team information so that they can work on a recovery plan. They're working on giving Curiosity its attitude and let the rover have the ability to make safety checks, as well as prevent this problem from happening in the future.

NASA hopes the Curiosity rover, which "has a few more years before its nuclear power system degrades enough to significantly limit operations," can provide additional clues about the planet prior to the launch of the Mars 2020 rover mission.

Year 2020 is poised to be a big one for the exploration of Mars. NASA will launch the Mars 2020 rover (renamed prior to launch) on July 17, joining the Curiosity rover and the now-deceased Opportunity rover on the Red Planet.

The Mars 2020 rover, expected to reach the Martian surface on Feb. 18, 2021, will detect if there is any fossilized evidence of extraterrestrial beings, in addition to other tasks. In 2019, Curiosity detected oxygen that "behaves in a way that so far scientists cannot explain."

Several months prior to that, the rover also detected an "unusually high" level of methane on Mars. On Earth, methane is produced both biologically and geologically, although it is not clear what caused the methane spike on Mars.

NASA’s long-term goal is to send a manned mission to Mars in the 2030s. However, former astronauts, including Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins, think we should skip a return mission to the Moon, slated for 2024, and "shoot directly for Mars."
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

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We're All Going to Live in Mushroom Houses on Mars

By Caroline Delbert, Jan 16, 2020

Afbeelding

See why NASA thinks fungi are the future.
  • Architectural fungus could be the secret to realistic Mars habitation plans.
  • The "turtle principle" means we'll have to carry everything we need to Mars, including furniture and all building materials.
  • Fungus grows fast, has versatile chemical properties, and can be used in a closed ecosystem in a Mars habitat.
_________________________________________________________

NASA is sharing information about its myco-architecture program, in which experimental fungus-based building technologies could be the feasible future of Mars habitats. “Science fiction often imagines our future on Mars and other planets as run by machines, with metallic cities and flying cars rising above dunes of red sand,” NASA says. “But the reality may be even stranger.”

The myco-architecture (myco is the prefix meaning “fungus”) NASA is excited about isn’t only a new way to make furniture, although it can do that, the agency says. Mushroom House—not its real name—is an integrated habitat with layers. The tough, complex fibers made by fungal mycelia are building blocks of furniture, interior walls, and the innermost layer of the outer shell. After that comes a layer of cyanobacteria, which photosynthesize water and CO₂ into “oxygen and fungus food.” The outermost layer in the model is solid ice, which is both protective and nourishing to the cyanobacteria below.

Afbeelding
Bricks produced using mycelium, yard waste, and wood chips as a part of the myco-architecture project. Similar materials could be used to build habitats on the Moon or Mars. -NASA
2018 Stanford-Brown-RISD iGEM Team


Bricks and other structures made using myco-architecture are lightweight, easily blended with reused materials like wood chips to make something like plywood, but with mushrooms. NASA pithily says sci-fi relies on shiny metal and flying cars, but the idea of organically grown housing or even spaceships goes back decades. And NASA isn’t alone in suggesting that fast-growing natural fibers are the future: In Kim Stanley Robinson’s 2018 novel Red Moon, bamboo forms the backbone of an international moon station where thousands of people live and work. Characters marvel at how much the plants grow within even just a day.

On the food podcast Check the Pantry, an Alaska mushroom farmer said once his mushroom cave has taken root, so to speak, new mushrooms can be harvested about every three to five days for the whole growing season. Some fungi grow so fast that scientists are attempting to slow them in order to better study and prevent environmental harm. Different kinds feed on decaying organic material or have symbiotic relationships with plants. The relationship in the NASA myco-architectural model resembles naturally occurring lichen, which are composite organisms made of cyanobacteria and different kinds of fungi.



The lab running the myco-architectural experiments explains that any travel to Mars will follow the so-called “turtle model”: If we want to live there, we have to carry everything with us in order to do that. (Remember what Matt Damon has to do in order to make nutritious soil for growing potatoes in The Martian?)

On our planet, scientists would build and seed a full-scale fungal Chia Pet house. “On Earth, a flexible plastic shell produced to the final habitat dimensions would be seeded with mycelia and dried feedstock and the outside sterilized. [...] At destination, the mycelial and feedstock material would be moistened with water and heated, initiating fungal growth.”

Inside the Chia Mushroom House, myco-architecture research lead Lynn Rothschild says the fungi could be biologically tuned to make all kinds of other materials like bioplastics and latex. The fungal materials are insulating, self-repairing, fire-retardant, and with the right melanin levels, reflective of incoming radiation. Finally, science is catching up to what Mario and friends have known since 1988’s Super Mario Bros. 3: A Mushroom House bestows a valuable bonus.

https://www.popularmechanics.com/space/ ... 7l4TK5ysoU
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

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Bouwen op Mars is geen probleem, luchtdicht bouwen tegen een drukverschil van tien ton per vierkante meter wel.
Truth sounds like hate to those who hate truth.

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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

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By Nirmal Narayanan, Updated February 5, 2020 19:44 +08

Space agencies like NASA and private space companies such as SpaceX led by Elon Musk have been trying their best to make humans an interplanetary species, and in order to achieve this, they aim to colonize Mars.

However, reaching Mars is not an easy task, and experts believe that it will take at least 150 to 300 days to reach the Red Planet.

Humans could reach Mars in just five days
Now, scientist Paul Laviolette has claimed that humans could reach Mars within five days. Laviolette claimed that humans should embrace the concept of electrogravitics to reach Mars in less than a week.

It was a scientist named Thomas Townsend Brown who spent much of his life researching possibilities surrounding electrogravitics. The idea behind this theory is creating an anti-gravity force generated by an electric field's effect on a mass. Laviolette claimed that the same technique could help humans to reach the Red Planet quickly.

"In my book, I talked about going to Mars in five days, we could go quicker, I didn't want to make it sound too unbelievable. Townsend Brown's electrokinetic thrusters and the umbrella-like device has a big positive electrode and a small negative. He's got an insulator in between, like barium titanate. These have been shown to produce 70,000 newtons-per-kilowatt, that's 5,000 times more thrust for energy input than a jet engine," said Laviolette while talking with George Noory in the Beyond Belief chat show.

Laviolette added that he could build the flying vessel if space agencies give him $15 million. However, sceptics feel the plan will not work, as the entire concept of the flying vessel is against the laws of modern physics.

Mars colony will be based on direct democracy
As the plans to colonize Mars are progressing steadily, Musk had claimed that the government that will be set up on the Red Planet will be based on direct democracy. Musk added that he will live on Mars despite narrow chances of survival.

"We've recently made a number of breakthroughs that I am just really fired up about. I'm talking about moving there. Your probability of dying on Mars is much higher than on Earth. There's a good chance of death. There are lots of people who climb mountains. People die on Mount Everest all the time. They still like doing it for the challenge," said Musk.

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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

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By Carlo Inigo Monzon, February 7, 2020 14:53

A space tech company suggested a way on how funerals can be held on Mars if a member of a human colony dies. The funeral plans unveiled by the company involves the use of a special garment for the dead and a recycling process that would turn the body of the deceased into raw materials.

The idea of having funerals in Martian human colonies was developed by Analgos LLC, the space tech firm that participated in a simulated Mars mission in Hawaii in January. The company believes that since funerals are essential parts of the grieving rituals of humans, they should also be practised on Mars once a colony has been established.

Martian Death Garment
One of the main components of the Martian funeral is a special garment designed for the deceased. For this aspect, the company's CEO JJ Hastings partnered with fashion designer Pia Interlandi to develop the Martian death garment, which is part of the latter's "Garments of the Grave" collection.

The special clothing designed by Interlandi consists of four layers that are all 100 percent biodegradable. The entire garment looks like a tunic with layers of wraps. Each of the layers is made from silkworm proteins. Making the layers biodegradable would allow the entire garment to decompose with the body to minimize waste on Mars.

Funeral Rituals On Mars
According to Interlandi, she decided to make a multi-layered garment to pay tribute to the funeral and grieving rituals of various cultures. She noted that dressing up the deceased in various layers would allow the grieving parties to get closer to the body.

"The closing of the coffin is often too abrupt and too hard and too sudden," she told Space.com. "We need to have a process where we can slowly veil and conceal the body so that it's a softer, more gentle kind of fading out."

Recycling The Corpses
After the funeral, the corpse of the deceased will then undergo a special process that would essentially recycle it. Although Hastings did not go into detail regarding the actual recycling process, she noted that it would decompose the body and turn it into raw materials.

Since the body is made up of various vital minerals such as salt, carbon and water, extracting these elements through recycling will be very important on Mars. Although the entire process seems macabre, minimizing waste will be an important aspect of a Mars colony's sustainability.
Gun jezelf wat je een ander toewenst     islam = racisme   & de hel op aarde voor mens en dier
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

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By Ciaran McGrath, published: 13:14, Mon, Feb 10, 2020 | UPDATED: 14:37, Mon, Feb 10, 2020

A prototype of a British-built plasma-powered rocket engine which could propel spacecraft at 100,000mph, thus halving journey times to Mars, has been tested successfully in the UK. And Pulsar Fusion ultimately hopes to construct an engine capable of powering rockets travelling at a staggering 500,000mph. Pulsar, a privately owned nuclear fusion firm based in Bletchley in Milton Keynes, has constructed a miniature version of the thruster - and the trial opens up a range of tantalising possibilities, as well as underscoring the importance to post-Brexit Britain of the soaring space sector, which also celebrated the launch of the Solar Orbiter spacecraft earlier today.

Pulsar's CEO, Richard Dinan, a former star of Channel 4 reality show Made in Chelsea, said: "I see Nuclear Fusion as a sector that will sweep in a whole host of innovation – it is not just power station technology. Propulsion is possibly even a natural first step, over powering the national grid, on the road towards commercial fusion. At Pulsar, we develop and invest in several promising components and technologies, each with nuclear fusion at their heart."

Head of operations at Pulsar, Dr James Lambert added: "This first round of tests is designed to locate our concept in space design and explore state of the art electric propulsion. It included electrical and vacuum subsystem validation, as well as using a materials testing suite to establish flight parameters and minimum viable product specifications for the new generation of thruster engines."

Conventional rockets have a maximum exhaust speed of around 40,000mph, meaning a journey to Mars, as envisaged by billionaire entrepreneur and would-be colonist Elon Musk, would take six months for a one-way trip.

However, a nuclear fusion engine would mean such a journey could be completed in half that time, as well as improving the feasibility of expeditions beyond the solar system.

Pulsar's thruster is capable of achieving ten times the efficiency of a conventional chemical rocket, by putting vast amounts of energy into argon gas, the propellant, to produce a high temperature plasma similar to that which is found in a nuclear fusion reactor.

An electromagnetic field is then used to shoot out the plasma at colossal speeds, potentially powering superfast journeys.

The device has been built as part of Pulsar's initiative to design and build a larger, hotter thruster that will utilise nuclear fusion power in a bid to create exhaust speeds in excess of 500,000 mph.

Speaking to Express.co.uk in June, Mr Dinan said: "Fusion offers exhaust speeds much faster than possible with combustion rockets and with more power than ion thrusters. These can halve mission times to Mars. If humanity is ever going to achieve the dream of traveling beyond our solar system, we absolutely need fusion rockets. Not only does nuclear fusion have the potential to solve the world's energy crisis but it will also lead to countless other technological innovations not least the tantalising possibility of high speed space travel. Nuclear has a bad name because humans initially used its power to create weapons, but there is a totally safe, clean other side to it that is demonstrated by the stars. The same technology that allowed us to do the worst thing we have ever done, will give us the ability to do the best thing we will ever do, generate abundant, powerful clean energy. Pulsar Fusion was set up out of a relationship with a lot of nuclear physicists who know the science is there now. Why should something that is possible today wait for tomorrow?"

Pulsar's success was announced hours after the Solar Orbiter spacecraft took off from Cape Canaveral in Florida.

The mission will take the most detailed images ever of the Sun and provide crucial information about how our star's volatile activity affects its atmosphere, helping improve predictions related to solar flares and other space weather.

Business Secretary Andrea Leadsom said: "Solar storms could cause major disruptions to technologies including our energy grid, mobile phone signal and navigation systems. This new mission demonstrates the UK's leading role in the global space industry, while supporting our economy, creating jobs and helping establish the UK as a global science superpower."

A Government-commissioned report published last year suggested the UK space industry was worth £14.8billion in 2016/17, a growth rate of 3.3 percent per annum.
Gun jezelf wat je een ander toewenst     islam = racisme   & de hel op aarde voor mens en dier
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

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Elon Musk: Moving to Mars will cost less than $500,000, ‘maybe even below $100,000’

Catherine Clifford - Published Mon, Feb 11 201912:33 PM EST

Afbeelding
Elon Musk speaks near a Falcon 9 rocket during his announcement that Japanese billionaire Yusaku Maezawa will be the first private passenger who will fly around the Moon aboard the SpaceX BFR launch vehicle.
DAVID MCNEW | AFP | Getty Images


Elon Musk says he is “confident” moving to Mars will “one day” cost less than $500,000 and “maybe even” cost below $100,000.

While the final cost is “very dependent on [the] volume” of travelers, Musk said the cost of moving to Mars will be “low enough that most people in advanced economies could sell their home on Earth [and] move to Mars if they want.” (The median home price in the U.S. is $223,900, according to Zillow.)

The comment was part of a Twitter thread announcing the Raptor engine (the engine which will power the rocket’s travels to Mars) has achieved the “power level needed for Starship and Super Heavy”.

The Starship is the rocket (formerly called the BFR rocket) that SpaceX is building to go to Mars. The Raptor is the rocket engine that SpaceX is making to power the Starship. The Starship will have seven Raptor engines and the booster that launches the rocketship, called Super Heavy, will have 31 Raptor engines, a SpaceX spokesperson tells CNBC Make It.

The “aspirational goal” for SpaceX is to send the first rocket to Mars (with cargo only) in 2022, according to SpaceX’s website. The second mission, which will take more cargo and crew, is aiming to go in 2024.

“The objectives for the first mission will be to confirm water resources, identify hazards, and put in place initial power, mining, and life support infrastructure,” SpaceX website says. The second mission has “primary objectives of building a propellant depot and preparing for future crew flights. The ships from these initial missions will also serve as the beginnings of the first Mars base, from which we can build a thriving city and eventually a self-sustaining civilization on Mars.”

In an article published in academic journal New Space in 2017, Musk also compared the price of trip to Mars to buying a house. At the time, he estimated trips to Mars would cost about $140,000 per ton (taking into account transporting things like luggage, food and life support). But he said at the time he believed the cost could potentially drop to below $100,000 a ton.

“It gets to the point where almost anyone, if they saved up and this was their goal, could buy a ticket and move to Mars — and given that Mars would have a labor shortage for a long time, jobs would not be in short supply,” he said.

Musk has said there is a 70 percent chance he himself will go to Mars, once SpaceX gets “the price per ticket to maybe around a couple hundred thousand dollars,” he told Axios in a November interview.



To be sure, being a pioneer on the red planet is not going to be an adventure for the faint of heart.

“It’s gonna be hard, there’s a good chance of death, going in a little can through deep space, you might land successfully, once you land successfully you’ll be working non-stop to build the base — so not much time for leisure — and once you get there, even after all this, there’s a very harsh environment, so there’s a good chance you’ll die there. We think you can come back but we’re not sure,” Musk told Axios.

Perhaps that’s why Musk tweeted on Sunday that the return trip from Mars will be free.

https://www.cnbc.com/2019/02/11/elon-mu ... LB6o1ABOK8
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

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NASA $25 Billion Budget For Mars
15-2-2020



Mars Expedition Colony 2033 - Space Travel Documentary



What Would A Million Person Mars Colony Look Like?
7 feb. 2020



Elon Musk Mars City by 2050
3 apr. 2019

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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

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Elon Musk’s Plan to Settle Mars

By Robert Zubrin - February 22, 2020 4:30 AM

Afbeelding
SpaceX founder Elon Musk speaks at a news conference after the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket carrying the Crew Dragon spacecraft lifted off on an uncrewed test flight from the Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla., March 2, 2019. (Mike Blake/Reuters)

First, how to transport passengers there? He’s building the fleet.

He who follows Freedom, let him leave his homeland, and risk his life.
— Adam Mickiewicz, Polish poet, 1832

Last week my wife Hope and I traveled to Boca Chica, Texas, to meet with Elon Musk. While we talked inside the SpaceX onsite headquarters, a mariachi band played outside, providing entertainment for long lines of people queued up to apply for multiple categories of jobs building craft to take humans to Mars. Hundreds were already hired and at work in the complex. Soon there will be thousands.

Musk calls his design the “Starship.” It’s a methane/oxygen-driven, stainless-steel, two-stage-to-orbit rocket with a payload capacity equal to the Saturn V booster that sent Apollo astronauts to the Moon. The Saturn V, however, was expendable, with each unit destroyed in the course of a single use. Starship will be fully reusable, like an airliner, and therefore promises a radical reduction in payload-delivery costs.

Starship has yet to be demonstrated. Yet here was Musk, building not the first experimental ship to prove the concept but, as we witnessed touring the place the next day, a shipyard and a fleet. Is he mad? According to conventional aerospace-industry thinking he certainly is. But there is a method to his madness.

I have known Musk for some two decades now. In 2001, I was among those who helped convince him to make Mars his calling. His plan is based to a significant degree on my own work, which is generally known as the Mars Direct plan. Published in 1990 and elaborated in detail in 1996 in my book The Case for Mars, Mars Direct was a radical break with previous NASA thinking on how human Mars missions might be accomplished. But Musk’s Starship plan is far more radical still.

With the exception of a period in the 1990s when NASA, under the guidance of Mike Griffin, the associate administrator for exploration, did embrace an expanded version of Mars Direct, the space agency has stuck with a paradigm set forth by Wernher von Braun in a number of variations between 1948 and 1969. According to those ideas, orbital stations should first be built, providing platforms for on-orbit construction of giant interplanetary spaceships using advanced propulsion systems, which would travel from Earth orbit (or currently, rather more absurdly, lunar orbit) to Mars orbit. Departing from these orbital motherships, small landing craft could take crews down to the Martian surface to plant the flag, make a few footprints, and then return to orbit after a short stay.

In contrast, both Mars Direct and the Starship plan use direct flights from Earth orbit to the surface of Mars, with direct return from the surface to Earth using methane/oxygen propellant made on the Red Planet from local materials. Both plans shun any need for orbital infrastructure, orbital construction, interplanetary motherships, specialized small landing craft, or advanced propulsion. Both involve long duration stays on Mars from the very first mission. For both, the central purpose of the mission is not to fly to Mars but to accomplish something serious there.

But there is a difference. In Mars Direct, the modest earth-return vehicle and the crew’s habitation module both stage off the booster that delivers them to orbit, landing on the Red Planet with a combined useful-habitation-plus-payload-mass of about 40 tons. In Musk’s plan, a Starship is flown to orbit and then refueled there by six tanker Starships, after which the whole ship is flown the Mars, delivering a useful habitation-plus-payload mass of as much as 200 tons. So, while the Mars Direct plan might send crews of four to six astronauts at a time to the Red Planet, a Starship could accommodate 50 or more.

Musk’s plan offers more mission capability than Mars Direct does, but that capability comes with a price. Specifically, if the crew is to come back, you need to refuel a Starship, which needs about 1,000 tons of propellant. In the Mars Direct plan, the much more modest earth-return vehicle sent to the Red Planet in advance of the crew requires only 100 tons. The Mars surface-power and other base requirements needed to support Starship operations are a factor of ten higher than those needed to implement Mars Direct.

So a large base needs to be built in advance, with several Starships sent one-way to Mars and loaded with lots of base equipment, ten football fields’ worth of solar panels, and robots to set it all up. Not until all that is in place can the first crew carrying Starship arrive. That makes the system suboptimal for exploration. But exploration is not what Musk has in mind.

If Mars Direct may be likened to an evolvable version of the Apollo program, Musk’s plan is like D-Day. He needs a fleet. So he’s creating a shipyard to build a fleet. But why build a fleet before testing even one ship? There are several reasons. The first is that Musk wants to be prepared to take losses. By the time the first Starship is ready for its maiden test flight, he’ll have three or four more already built and on deck, ready to be modified to fix whatever caused the first to fail. Launch, crash, fix, and repeat, until it works, and then keep launching, improving payload and cutting turnaround time, advancing performance, flight by flight, ferociously.

But there is another reason to build a fleet. It’s to make Starships cheap. NASA built five space shuttles over a twelve-year period, each one costing several billion dollars. Musk is creating a shipyard designed to ultimately mass-produce Starships at a rate of 50 or more per year. That may sound crazy, but it is not impossible. In 1944, the United States produced escort aircraft carriers at a rate of one per week. Scores of separate teams worked simultaneously, each on its own part of the ship for a few days before passing the job on to the next team. If Musk set up a similar line with a workforce of 3,000, that would mean labor costs on the order of $6 million per ship, or between $15 to $20 million each, with materials and avionics included.

If he can get costs that low, then once the base on Mars is operational, with a growing industrial and greenhouse agricultural capacity, Starships carrying 100 passengers each could fly to Mars and stay there if necessary to provide housing, at a hardware cost per passenger of less than $200,000. So make the ticket price $300,000 — the net worth of a typical homeowner, or about seven years’ pay for an average American. In colonial times, working stiffs booked passage to America in exchange for seven years’ work. It’s a price many people can pay — and have paid — when they really want to make a move. All that is needed besides is Liberty to welcome the immigrants — if she is there, they will come, and prosper through their creativity.

On this latter point, Musk and I agree. An extraterrestrial settlement is unlikely to be able to produce a profit by export of any material commodity to Earth. The transport costs are simply too great, and so the numbers in business plans based on such concepts just don’t add up. But intellectual property is another matter altogether, as it can be transmitted across interplanetary distances nearly cost-free. Bit for bit, the highest value any data can have is that contained in a patent. A Mars colony will be composed of a very technically adept population in a frontier environment where they will be free to innovate and forced to innovate. It will be like 19th-century America, only much more so, a pressure cooker for invention. As historian Frederick Jackson Turner pointed out in his famous essay “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” (1893), an analogous situation made youthful America the most inventive culture ever, with Yankee Ingenuity bringing the world the blessings of electricity, steamboats, telegraphs, labor-saving machinery, recorded sound, light bulbs, telephones, centrally generated electric power — and shortly after he wrote, airplanes and mass-produced automobiles. So, to meet its needs, hard-driven and bureaucracy-free Martian Ingenuity can be expected to produce revolutionary advances in robotics, artificial intelligence, genetically modified organisms, synthetic biology, and many other fields. These inventions, created to meet the necessities of Mars, could be licensed as patents on Earth, bringing in the income needed to fund those imports of complex systems, which unlike bulk materials like food, fabric, fuel, steel, aluminum, glass, and plastic, may be too difficult to make on Mars for some time to come.

Right now, Musk is laser-focused on creating his shipyard, a task he sees as far more central than that of simply perfecting the Starship. But there are many more problems that Musk will need to solve to make all this work. On-orbit refilling of cryogenic propellant tanks has yet to be demonstrated, and Mars in situ propellant production technology, while well understood, is still not ready for use. Starships returning from Mars will encounter much greater heating loads than will vehicles simply reentering from Earth orbit. The lightweight thermal protection that suffices for one might not work for the other. The rocket-exhaust plumes of the massive Starships could create dangerous craters during landings, forcing Musk to adopt a Mars Direct–type plan, staging smaller vehicles, perhaps mini-Starships, off the Starship in Earth orbit. I believe that this consideration, combined with the very large power requirement for refueling a full-size Starship on the Red Planet, may ultimately force him to develop a miniature version of the Starship. Such a “Mini” could be lifted to Earth orbit by a Starship and then staged off it to complete the mission Mars Direct–style, allowing the Starship to return to Earth to be flown to orbit again within a few days. The Mini could also be launched independently, as a reusable upper stage for SpaceX’s already operational Falcon 9, giving the company a fully reusable medium-lift launch capability as well. Musk prefers a doing everything with a single design. We shall see if he can pull it off.

NASA’s operating budget is more than ten times that of Musk’s SpaceX, which, however, is rapidly passing it by. The space agency’s much delayed heavy-lift launch vehicle, now known as SLS, was a reasonable design for a near-term shuttle-derived booster when it was first proposed in 1988. But it is showing up a generation too late, with less payload-delivery capability than Starship’s, and costing about 50 times as much per flight. NASA says it is engaged in an “all hands on deck” effort to land astronauts on the Moon by 2024, but there is little chance that it will, because it has dreamed up a hyper-complex plan that involves building a lunar orbiting space station first and then employing four launches, five flight elements, and six rendezvous operations per mission. While this approach offers the political benefits of giving as many players as possible a piece of the action, the operability of the plan is very questionable.

NASA’s Mars-mission design is even worse. It involves basing a huge ion-drive Deep Space Transport at the lunar-orbit space station and then flying the DST to another space station, one that, the agency claims, needs to be built in orbit around Mars. Transit times from lunar orbit to Mars orbit for this futuristic system is 300 days each way — nearly twice that the Spirit and Opportunity rovers needed to make the trip to from Earth to the Red Planet beginning in 2003. Moreover, unlike Spirit and Opportunity, the DST would not land.

If you want to either explore or settle Mars, you need to land on Mars. The goal of the DST plan, however, is neither exploration nor settlement. It is expenditure. Rather than offer the simplest and most efficient path to the Red Planet, the DST architecture offers the most complex, in order to provide “rationales” (N.b.: not reasons) for as many new technology-development programs as possible.

Musk’s approach is the opposite. NASA’s program is vendor-driven. His is purpose-driven. He is not concerned with justifying expenditures on a raft of “potentially useful” technologies. He wants to get his program done with the least amount of new development. His attitude is “Show me why I need it.” He may push this too far. As noted, I believe he would be wise to develop a Mini-Starship to reduce the power requirements for making return fuel on Mars. He disagrees. “Show me,” he says. Our conclusions on that point diverge, but I really love the way he thinks.

It’s the kind of thinking that can get us to Mars.

Afbeelding
Elon Musk and Robert Zubrin (Courtesy of Hope Zubrin)

Robert Zubrin, an aerospace engineer, is the founder of the Mars Society and the president of Pioneer Astronautics. His latest book is The Case for Space: How the Revolution in Spaceflight Opens Up a Future of Limitless Possibility. @robert_zubrin

https://www.nationalreview.com/2020/02/ ... jpPS0i7GNA
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

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Prachtige filmpjes die je een impressie geven van hoe je een reis door de ruimte (in dit geval bij de maan) kan ervaren. Zullen onze nakomelingen ooit tripjes naar de maan kunnen maken op dezelfde manier als wij vliegreizen maken? Let ook op de muziek! (Dus speakers aan.)

Apollo 13 Views of the Moon in 4K
24 feb. 2020



Earthrise - Planet Earth Seen From The Moon - Real Time Journey Across The Lunar Surface
20 jun. 2018

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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Bericht door xplosive »

 
Alison DeNisco Rayome, March 3, 2020 5:00 AM PST

A pristine white rocket stirs up the dusty terracotta surface of Mars, coming in for a smooth landing. A hatch opens, and two rovers make their way across the rugged orange-red terrain. There are no humans -- at least, not yet. But this is one small step -- or a short wheel roll -- to a new world that could be our future home.

I'm playing Surviving Mars, a 2018 survival strategy game from Tropico developers Haemimont Games and Paradox Interactive. The goal? Build the infrastructure to sustain human life on the red planet.
Video games and virtual reality simulations are bringing the average person closer than ever to experiencing life on Mars. For many, these pop culture tours make the actual missions to colonize the planet proposed both by NASA and private companies like Elon Musk's SpaceX feel more achievable.

These games, along with other pop culture representations of Mars, have vastly increased interest in human missions to Mars, said James Burk, IT director of the space advocacy nonprofit the Mars Society. In particular, the 2015 movie adaptation of the novel The Martian was a major turning point in piquing public curiosity in colonizing the planet. And now, SpaceX's plan to send an unmanned mission to Mars as soon as 2022 "is throwing gasoline on it all," he added.

"It's getting easier all the time to tell the story of sending people to Mars because now we have all these tools," Burk said. "People are more accepting of that reality now."
"It's a game, but we wanted to make it plausible fiction and ground it in existing science," Dyankov said. The team consulted with a NASA worker on the core elements of the game during early builds, but chose to forgo some elements of realism for the sake of fun gameplay, he added.
Occupy Mars seeks to replicate the Mars experience from a different perspective.

While Surviving Mars is a colony-building strategy game, Occupy Mars is an open world sandbox game due out in the next few months that will give you the first-person experience of life on the planet. As a player, you build and update your base, discover new regions and generally try to survive, said Jacek Wyszyński, CEO and CTO of development studio Pyramid Games, based in Poland.

In college, Wyszyński dreamed of building rockets for SpaceX, until he learned that certain US laws, for national security reasons, prohibit international applicants from applying for roles at companies that work with rockets. Instead, he turned to building rockets in video games.

Occupy Mars developers consulted with the Mars Society and researched NASA resources to build the game so that the basic elements are similar to what you'd really find on Mars.

The game takes place about 50 years in the future, so the technology involved is more advanced than what we currently have, like supercharged 3D printing. But basic requirements for a working Martian base -- water, power, oxygen, heating, pressure regulation and radiation shields -- are all present, though simplified.

Like with Surviving Mars, the key was to balance realism with playability, Wyszyński said. "Initially, we wanted it to be as realistic as possible, but over the years of development we learned that the most important thing for the player is cool gameplay -- if it's too realistic, it's going to be boring," he added. For example, early feedback was that players didn't want to spend six hours building a corridor -- they wanted to get it done fast, and go exploring.
The Mars Society's Mars Desert Research Station in southern Utah has hosted more than 200 crews of six-person teams of researchers and students, who live for a week or two on the station, simulating life on the Martian surface. They explore the desert in full spacesuits, maintain the station's water systems, grow plants, and recycle their waste water. (Hey, no one said desert space travel was glamorous.)

To make these missions more accessible, the organization is developing MarsVR -- an open-source VR platform that brings viewers to the desert base to explore the landscape.

The platform, releasing later this year, will be both an educational tool that anyone with a VR headset can download, and a training tool for crews before they arrive at the Mars Desert Research Station. MarsVR will allow crew members to virtually practice living on the station -- learning how to put on a spacesuit, operate the air lock and rovers, and cook freeze-dried food, all before stepping foot on the base, Burk said. You'll also be able to explore a square mile of the terrain around the base. From an engineering perspective, it's what it would actually be like to build a Mars colony and walk around, he added.

"Every second there is precious," Burk said. "So if they know where everything is ahead of time, it makes it better."
"VR has the capacity of mirroring the real world, and it's only getting better," Reyes said. "There's no closer analog to training astronauts for these missions than using these simulation tools, because they provide the closest experience possible to achieving that."

Games and VR may not yet be advanced enough to fully simulate life on Mars alone. But they do have the power to spark the interest of young people who will grow up to be the astronauts who do step foot on the red planet, according to Dyankov of the Surviving Mars game.

"The best result of our game would definitely not be how many copies it sells," Dyankov said. "It's if we can imagine 30 or 50 years from now, somebody on Mars says, 'For me it all started with this game when I was a kid.'"
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Bericht door xplosive »

 
By Michael Thomson for Dailymail.com, published: 02:19 GMT, 6 March 2020 | updated: 08:54 GMT, 6 March 2020

A group of university researchers have partnered with NASA to build the technology for a self-sustaining, zero-waste human settlement on Mars.

Called the Center for the Utilization of Biological Engineering in Space, or CUBES, the team is made up of scientists, researchers, and students from UC Berkeley, UC Davis, Utah State and the Planetary Science Institute.

Adam Arkin, a Bioengineering professor at UC Berkeley who serves as CUBE's director, says the team wanted to give astronauts the means to grow their own food and harvest resources using materials available in whatever environment they may end up on.

To start with, they decided to first focus on developing tools for such a settlement on Mars.

'The idea is to be able to produce food, pharmaceuticals, and light building materials using waste recycling and the resources that are already there,' Arkin said.

Resources are scant on Mars, limited to just sunlight, atmosphere, ice water, loose dirt on the surface, called regolith, and human waste from astronauts themselves.

"The CUBES system should be able to support nine astronauts for their food and pharmaceutical needs over nearly a year on-planet using nothing but sunlight and carbon dioxide," Arkin told Forbes.

To accommodate for these environmental challenges, the team has been experimenting with modified crops that could survive the harsh environment.

Because Mars is further from the sun than Earth, there's less than half as much sunlight available on the planet surface, making photosynthesis more challenging for plants.

To compensate, the team has experimented with gene editing different types of crops, including rice, potatoes, and lettuce, to be able to convert energy from a wider spectrum of light.

The team is also working on gene edited variations of lettuce, potatoes and other crops to have biopharmaceutical properties, to ensure astronauts are as healthy as possible.

The team also has a plan to harvest methane from human waste, which will then be used to produce biopolymers that can be used to fuel 3D printers.

Other human waste will be used as feedstock for various microbial systems around the theoretical settlement.

Another avenue of research is an effort to try and detoxify the Martian soil, which contains a number of hazardous chemicals, including perchlorate, which makes it impossible to grow crops.

The project's radical aims are unlikely to be fully realized any time soon, but Arkin believes the research could be just as helpful for humans on Earth facing new challenges from climate change.

'Mars is an example of an already desertified planet,' he said. 'If you look at our planet, temperatures are rising at extremely high rates.'

'Our job now is to build a technology that can work on both new planets and Earth as it evolves.'
  • WHAT ARE NASA'S PLANS FOR A MANNED MISSION TO MARS IN THE 2030s?

    Mars has become the next giant leap for mankind's exploration of space.

    But before humans get to the red planet, astronauts will take a series of small steps by returning to the moon for a year-long mission.

    Details of a the mission in lunar orbit have been unveiled as part of a timeline of events leading to missions to Mars in the 2030s.

    In May 2017, Greg Williams, deputy associate administrator for policy and plans at Nasa, outlined the space agency's four stage plan that it hopes will one day allow humans to visit Mars, as well as its expected time-frame.

    Phase one and two will involve multiple trips to lunar space, to allow for construction of a habitat which will provide a staging area for the journey.

    The last piece of delivered hardware would be the actual Deep Space Transport vehicle that would later be used to carry a crew to Mars.

    And a year-long simulation of life on Mars will be conducted in 2027.

    Phase three and and four will begin after 2030 and will involve sustained crew expeditions to the Martian system and surface of Mars.
     
     
     
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

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Elon Musk Wants to Build a New Starship Every 72 Hours So He Can Colonize Mars

Very doable!

By Caroline Delbert - Mar 5, 2020

Afbeelding
  • Sometime surprisingly soon (not soon), a thousand spaceships could colonize Mars.
  • Elon Musk wants to make sure any Mars journey is well stocked and as safe as possible.
  • This extremely unlikely plan involves making the most powerful spacecraft ever and the first that's fully reusable.
Elon Musk is bulking up his rocket-building workforce—big time. Ars Technica visited the Texas home of SpaceX, where Musk was calling a meeting on a Sunday “morning” at 1 a.m. There's a lot to unpack here.

To start, Musk is worried that our window of opportunity to make it to Mars is closing—so we better hurry up. After the 1 a.m. meeting, SpaceX added over 250 new employees in two days, representing a full doubling of the workforce.

Ars Technica visited the day after the major Starship prototype implosion that made news earlier this week. The SN1 prototype blew up as a direct result of weak welds. It sounds like everyone involved knew this prototype was faulty and told Musk so when he asked, and he insists it was never designed to fly for real anyway.

It’s worrying, though, because “SpaceX is designing its factory here to build a Starship every 72 hours,” Ars Technica reports. This means its facility in Texas has to include huge windbreaks—think of the enormous, sky-high protective nets at some driving ranges, but solid—in order to be able to safely stack Starships. “I think we need, probably, on the order of 1,000 ships, and each of those ships would have more payload than the Saturn V—and be reusable,” Musk said.

Let’s break that down, because it’s bonkers.

Right now, there’s no reusable rocket, period, and there never has been. The Space Shuttle was the first reusable spacecraft, which is a different thing and an important distinction. The shuttle launched vertically like a rocket (as opposed to a horizontal airplane- or jet-type takeoff), but shed enormous disposable rocket boosters and fuel tanks as soon as it got into orbit.

Saturn V, the rocket that delivered people to the moon, was the most powerful rocket ever built at the time, designed to carry a lot—i.e., all of its boosters and fuel and the capacity for 90,000 pounds of payload. Some rockets can carry heavier payloads, but these have gone to low-earth orbit almost exclusively since countries stopped sending people to the moon. Musk is making a historic ask in more ways than one.

Musk's thinking might be, well, a moonshot, but his opinions and plans are pragmatic for the future he imagines for humanity.

If we want to live on more than one planet long term, Musk says, the settlements everywhere have to be stable and sustainable, even if the next supply ship is delayed or never materializes at all. And in that sense, stocking the planet with 1,000 ships means a depth and breadth of supplies that’s far beyond what most existing ideas can manage.

With 1,000 ships, you could have one (or five!) that only carry nutritious soil. You could have dozens that only carry liquefied, breathable air. Ninety million pounds is the amount of just fertilizer that Americans apply each year. It's so much to be able to carry into space, but it's very little by Earth terms.

“Success is not assured,” Musk told Ars Technica. It’s poetic to use a big understatement to describe what’s perhaps the most ambitious project people have spent real money and time developing in this way. But one of the secrets of Musk’s undisputed success is how much you end up rooting for his vision.

https://www.popularmechanics.com/scienc ... yX8W9HUhTY
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Bericht door Pilgrim »

Curiosity Mars Rover Snaps 1.8 Billion-Pixel Panorama (narrated video)
4 mrt. 2020

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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Bericht door Mahalingam »

Over het The ExoMars "Rosalind Franklin" vehicle, een gezamelijk project van EU, UK en USA. USA liep weg en de Russen kwamen binnen.
Het is dus zo'n technisch project met heel veel bemoeienis van politici. En dan krijg je altijd dit soort dingen (zie overheid en ITC):
First envisaged as a small technology demonstration mission, the robot vehicle was formally approved by European nations back in 2005, with a launch first pencilled in for 2011.

Then, as ambitions grew and the design was beefed up, the start date was put back. At first, it was shifted to 2013, but further problems saw slippage to 2016, and then again to 2018.

For much of its history, the rover project, codenamed ExoMars, has had to fumble through with budgets that were insufficient to maintain the promised timelines.
At one stage, back in 2009, Esa decided to join forces with America to try to make the mission happen, only to see Nasa walk away three years later when its priorities changed.
That could have killed the project there and then, but for an offer from the Russians to fill the partnership position vacated by the US.
Even with this fresh impetus, however, the project continued to stumble. The Esa-Roscosmos 2018 target gave way to 2020. Now the launch date is being moved again.
The rover has been an important component of British space policy. The UK is the second biggest contributor to the ExoMars programme.
https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-51844030

In 2005 bedacht, wordt nu gelanceerd in 2022.
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

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Een paar leuke filmpjes over bizarre rotsformaties in het Martiaanse landschap. Ik zelf geloof niet echt in de wilde speculaties over deze eigenaardige rotsformaties, maar het geeft wel goed weer hoe vreemd en bizar zo'n buitenaards landschap overkomt.

Strange Anomalies of Mars. Amazing finds Part.4
6 mrt. 2020



Новые находки на Марсе (часть 2).Признаки обитания![New finds on Mars (part 2).Signs of habitation!]
6 mei 2017

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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

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Brandstof of medicijnen maken op Mars? Dit apparaatje is alles wat je nodig hebt!

Vivian Lammerse, 7 april 2020

Afbeelding
De linkerkant van de reactor is de kamer met de bacteriën en nanodraden die CO2 reduceert tot acetaat. Aan de rechterkant wordt zuurstof geproduceerd. Afbeelding: UC Berkeley, foto gemaakt door Peidong Yang

Onderzoekers ontwikkelden een inventief apparaatje waarmee we ter plekke in onze behoeften kunnen voorzien.

Het is nu nog toekomstmuziek, maar op een dag hopen velen – waaronder Elon Musk en NASA – Mars te kunnen koloniseren. Prachtige plannen die natuurlijk enorm tot de verbeelding spreken. Maar er komt ook redelijk wat bij om hoek kijken. Hoe krijgen we bijvoorbeeld alles wat we nodig hebben vanaf de aarde naar Mars verscheept? Daarom zoeken wetenschappers naar oplossingen en kijken daarbij naar de grondstoffen die er op Mars te vinden zijn, zodat we het lokaal zelf kunnen fabriceren. En een nieuw apparaatje uitgevonden door Amerikaanse onderzoekers biedt daarvoor uitkomst.

Van brandstof tot medicijnen
“Om op Mars te kunnen leven, hebben we bepaalde dingen nodig,” zegt onderzoeker Peidong Yang tegen Scientias.nl. “Denk aan brandstof en medicijnen, maar ook voedsel en natuurlijk zuurstof.” Het is erg lastig en bovendien veel te duur om dit allemaal vanaf de aarde naar Mars te verslepen. En daarom ontwikkelden de onderzoekers in een nieuwe studie een apparaat waarmee kooldioxide uit de lucht opgevangen kan worden om dit vervolgens om te zetten in bruikbare producten. “Wat ons apparaat kan doen gaat als volgt: kooldioxide + water + zonlicht = brandstoffen / chemicaliën + zuurstof,” legt Yang uit.

De afgelopen acht jaar hebben de onderzoekers hard aan hun uitvinding gewerkt. Wat het apparaat doet, is als volgt. Het hybride systeem combineert bacteriën (Sporomusa ovata) en nanodraden die de energie van zonlicht kunnen opvangen, om kooldioxide en water om te zetten in bouwstenen voor organische moleculen. “Op Mars is ongeveer 96 procent van de atmosfeer CO2,” zegt Yang. “Alles wat je daarom nodig hebt, zijn deze nanodraden om zonne-energie op te nemen en door te geven aan de bacteriën die de rest voor hun rekening nemen.” Zonlicht en kooldioxide zijn ruimschoots op Mars aanwezig. De enige andere vereiste is water. Maar ook dat hoeft niet per se een probleem te zijn. Op de Martiaanse polen komen namelijk ijskappen van bevroren water voor. Bovendien zou het volgens Yang goed kunnen dat onder het grootste deel van de planeet bevroren water verborgen ligt.

Wat zijn nanodraden?
Nanodraden zijn dunne siliciumdraden van ongeveer een honderdste van de breedte van een mensenhaar. Deze kunnen worden gebruikt als elektronische componenten, maar bijvoorbeeld ook als sensoren en zonnecellen.

Acetaat
In dit geval functioneren de nanodraden als een soort antenne: ze vangen het zonnefoton op, net als een zonnepanneel. “Wat er dus eigenlijk gebeurt, is dat de nanodraden licht absorberen, elektronen genereren en deze aan de bacteriën geven,” vat Yang samen. “Deze bacteriën nemen de elektronen op en – op dezelfde manier waarop planten suikers maken – zetten twee koolstofdioxidemoleculen en water om in acetaat en zuurstof. En deze acetaatmoleculen kunnen dienen als bouwstenen voor een reeks organische moleculen, van brandstoffen en kunststoffen tot medicijnen.”

Afbeelding
Samenklonterende bacteriën nauw verpakt rond de nanodraden. Hoe dichter de bacteriën op. elkaar zitten, hoe efficiënter de conversie van zonne-energie naar koolstofbindingen. Afbeelding: UC Berkeley, foto gemaakt door Peidong Yang

Het systeem werkt dus eigenlijk op dezelfde manier als fotosynthese. Planten hebben echter een vrij laag rendement en zetten doorgaans minder dan een half procent van de zonne-energie om in koolstofverbindingen. Toen Yang vijf jaar geleden zijn eerste reactor presenteerde, was de efficiëntie vergelijkbaar met planten. Dat moest beter. “We hebben het systeem nu geoptimaliseerd, waardoor we ook een hoger rendement hebben,” vertelt hij. “We zijn nu van 0,4 procent naar 3,6 procent gegaan.” Daarnaast wordt er net als bij fotosynthese zuurstof gefabriceerd. En dat is een groot bijkomend voordeel. Dit zuurstof zou namelijk gebruikt kunnen worden om de eerste Marskolonisten in zuurstof te voorzien.

Oplossing
Het veelbelovende apparaat biedt mogelijk uitkomst voor de eerste mensen die voet op Mars zetten. Het zou daarom best kunnen dat dit apparaat de reiskoffer haalt. “Je weet het natuurlijk nooit zeker, maar we bieden wel een mogelijke oplossing,” zegt Yang. Zijn laboratorium zal daarnaast naar manieren blijven zoeken om de efficiëntie te verhogen. Bovendien zijn ze op zoek naar nieuwe technieken voor het genetisch manipuleren van de bacteriën om ze veelzijdiger te maken, zodat ze in staat zijn om een verscheidenheid aan organische verbindingen te produceren.

Overigens zijn meerdere wetenschappers op zoek manieren om leven op Mars mogelijk en aangenamer te maken. Zo bedacht een eerder onderzoeksteam al een ingenieuze methode om van schimmels meubilair en zelfs complete leefmodules te bouwen. Bovendien houdt een enthousiaste Wageningse onderzoeker zich al enige tijd bezig met het verbouwen van groente en fruit op Mars. En dat maakt het idee van een kolonisatie van de rode planeet steeds concreter. Dat we ooit naar Mars zullen afreizen, lijkt wat dat betreft buiten kijf te staan. En misschien doen we dat al wel in 2032.

https://www.scientias.nl/brandstof-of-m ... odig-hebt/
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Bericht door Ali Yas »

Ik heb even naar dat apparaatje zitten kijken. Hoe groot is dat glaasje eigenlijk? Een koffiemok? Laten we 't ruim nemen en 10 cm zeggen.

Laten we eens wat gaan rekenen.

De oppervlakte van het glaasje is pak 'm beet pi*r2 = 3,14 * 0,05 * 0,05 = 0,008 m2.

Op Aarde geeft de zon onder gunstige omstandigheden 1000 W/m2, op Mars is dat 250, dus dat keer 0,008 = 2 W.

Met de gegeven doelmatigheid van 3,6% komen we op een netto vermogen van 0,07 W.

Een mens in rust verstookt 100 W, dus om één Martiaan gedurende de dag van zuurstof en voedsel te kunnen voorzien heb je ruim 1400 van deze dingen nodig. Als je de bewoner ook de nacht door wilt helpen worden dat er 2800.
Het zou daarom best kunnen dat dit apparaat de reiskoffer haalt.
Dat wordt dan een beste koffer...
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Bericht door Pilgrim »

Nederlandse analoog astronaut gaat op 'Marsmissie' in de Negev-woestijn

Caroline Kraaijvanger, 27 april 2020

Afbeelding

Gedurende vier weken zal Thomas Wijnen in de Israëlische woestijn leven als een Marskolonist. En de eerste echte Marskolonisten zullen daar de vruchten van plukken.

Menig kind droomt ervan: astronaut worden. Zo ook Thomas Wijnen. “Eigenlijk heb ik bij alles wat ik doe die droom altijd wel in mijn achterhoofd gehad,” zo vertelt hij aan Scientias.nl. “Ik ben wis- en natuurkunde gaan studeren, heb een master in de sterrenkunde afgerond, ben in de sterrenkunde gepromoveerd en reservist bij de luchtmacht geworden.” Een heuse ruimtemissie zou een prachtige vervolgstap zijn. Maar een carrière als astronaut is helaas maar voor weinigen weggelegd. Toch komt Wijnens nieuwe uitdaging er wel gevaarlijk dicht bij in de buurt. Hij gaat namelijk nog dit jaar in dienst van het Österreichisches Weltraum Forum (ÖWF) aan de slag als analoog astronaut. Tijdens een gesimuleerde Marsmissie in de Israëlische Negev-woestijn waant hij zich – samen met vijf andere analoog astronauten – gedurende vier weken op Mars. “We gaan er vertoeven in een basis die momenteel nog ontworpen wordt,” zo vertelt Wijnen. “En zijn er vier weken lang volledig op onszelf aangewezen.

Simulatie
Gedurende deze gesimuleerde Marsmissie wordt er alles aan gedaan om de situatie op Mars zoveel mogelijk na te bootsen. Wijnen en zijn collega’s mogen bijvoorbeeld alleen in een ruimtepak naar buiten. “Dat pak weegt 50 kilogram en het kost je – zelfs na training – ongeveer 1,5 uur om het aan te trekken.” Normaliter staan die ruimtepakken onder druk en bewegen astronauten zich als een soort Michelin-mannetjes voort. Op aarde hoeven die ruimtepakken – doordat zuurstof gewoon van buiten naar binnen gehaald kan worden – niet onder druk te staan. “Om toch dat Michelin-mannetje-effect te simuleren, zit in het ruimtepak een exoskelet dat onze bewegingen beperkt.”

En dat is niet het enige trucje dat wordt toegepast om de analoog astronauten het idee te geven dat ze op het weinig gastvrije en verre Mars zijn beland. “We werken ook met een vertraagde communicatie.” Doordat de afstand tussen de aarde en Mars groot is, duurt het – een beetje afhankelijk van de positie van beide planeten – tussen de 5 en 20 minuten voor berichten die vanaf de aarde verstuurd zijn, op Mars arriveren. Een antwoord op een simpele vraag kan dus zomaar 20 of zelfs 40 minuten op zich laten wachten. “Dat wordt ook gesimuleerd. Dus als wij contact opnemen met de controlekamer – die zich in Innsbruck bevindt – dan duurt het 10 minuten voor zij die boodschap ontvangen en wij moeten 20 minuten op een antwoord wachten.”

De woestijn
En ook de plek waar Wijnen en collega’s vertoeven heeft – zonder al te veel fantasie – wel wat weg van Mars. De missie speelt zich af in een erosiekrater die wel wat doet denken aan de inslagkraters op Mars en ook verschillende oppervlaktekenmerken die we hier aantreffen lijken op wat we op Mars zien. Bovendien is het een vrij droog gebied.

Afbeelding
Analoog astronauten aan het werk tijdens een gesimuleerde Marsmissie die in 2018 in Oman plaatsvond. Afbeelding: © OeWF (Florian Voggeneder).

Experimenten
En op deze Martiaans aandoende plek gaan Wijnen en collega’s niet alleen wonen, maar ook werken. “We gaan verschillende experimenten uitvoeren,” zo vertelt hij. Zo is het de bedoeling dat de analoog astronauten – nadat ze zich in dat zware ruimtepak hebben gehesen – buiten geologische monsters gaan verzamelen. “Wetenschappers hebben experimenten bedacht en wij moeten die uit gaan voeren.” Veel van die experimenten zijn in dit gebied al eens door geologen uitgevoerd. Door de resultaten van die onderzoeken naast de resultaten van de door astronauten uitgevoerde experimenten te leggen, kun je een goed beeld krijgen van wat er gebeurt als je astronauten zonder geologische achtergrond het werk van geologen laat doen.

Daarnaast staan er nog veel meer experimenten op de agenda. Zo wordt er ook onderzoek gedaan naar de samenwerking tussen analoog astronauten en robots. “Het doel is om te kijken hoe robots ons, met name als we onze ruimtepakken aan hebben, kunnen ondersteunen. Zo dragen we als we naar buiten gaan bijvoorbeeld meerdere lagen handschoenen. En dat gaat ten koste van de precisie.” Wellicht dat robots door ondersteuning te bieden, dat kunnen compenseren. “Daarnaast worden er ook psychologische en medische experimenten uitgevoerd.”

Uitdaging
De analoge missie is op meerdere fronten uitdagend. “Het lijkt mij met name een uitdaging om zo sterk op elkaar aangewezen te zijn,” vertelt Wijnen. “Wat ook uitdagend is, is dat we in vier weken tijd zoveel mogelijk willen doen. En daarbij moeten we alles wat we doen, vastleggen. Wij zijn namelijk niet de wetenschappers die de experimenten bedacht hebben, wij verzamelen slechts data en alleen door die data goed vast te leggen, kan er onderzoek gedaan worden. Dat is een hele verantwoordelijkheid.” Om ervoor te zorgen dat dat allemaal goed gaat, worden de onderzoeken en procedures op voorhand tot in de kleinste details doorgesproken met de wetenschappers die ze bedacht hebben. “We kunnen tijdens de missie niet elke keer contact zoeken met de onderzoekers om iets te vragen, want een antwoord laat 20 minuten op zich wachten. En dat is heel kostbare tijd; we hebben immers maar vier weken.”

Afbeelding
Thomas Wijnen. Afbeelding: © OEWF (Florian Voggeneder).

Procedures
De missie van Wijnen is niet de eerste analoge ruimtemissie die door het Österreichisches Weltraum Forum is opgezet. In de afgelopen jaren hebben er – op verschillende plaatsen op aarde – al meerdere plaatsgevonden. “Elke missie borduurt weer voort op eerdere missies,” vertelt Wijnen. “En het doel is om door al die missies heen procedures en werkschema’s te ontwikkelen die straks tijdens daadwerkelijk bemande missies naar Mars kunnen worden gebruikt.” Dat klinkt misschien een beetje bureaucratisch. Maar dat is het zeker niet. “Het is belangrijk dat je weet hoe je onderzoek moet doen,” stelt Wijnen. En hij illustreert dat met een voorbeeldje. “Stel dat je op zoek gaat naar sporen van leven op Mars. Dan is het belangrijk dat je de boel niet besmet en straks je eigen sporen aanziet voor die van buitenaards leven. Tegelijkertijd is het bijna onmogelijk om besmetting te voorkomen. Dus is het misschien wel het beste om die besmetting op een gecontroleerde manier plaats te laten vinden.” Hoe je dat het beste kunt doen, daar wordt tijdens de analoge missies over nagedacht. “In welke volgorde doe je welke experimenten en welke procedures volg je?” Ondertussen wordt er net zo kritisch gekeken naar de gereedschappen die tijdens toekomstige Marsmissies gebruikt gaan worden. “Neem bijvoorbeeld het ruimtepak: door de analoge missies komen we te weten wat wel werkt en wat niet, waar de bedieningsknoppen het beste gemaakt kunnen worden en waar je de gereedschappen het beste kunt bevestigen.”

Belangrijk
De analoge missies zijn zo van onschatbare waarde. “Het is een heel belangrijke manier van voorbereiding op bemande Marsmissies,” stelt Wijnen. “Je hebt liever dat er tijdens zo’n analoge missie dingen misgaan, dan dat we er straks op Mars achterkomen dat iets niet gaat of werkt. Want dan is het te laat.” Waar men de Negev-woestijn nog relatief gemakkelijk kan ontvluchten, is dat op Mars wat lastiger. “Je doet er zo een half jaar over om weer op aarde te komen.” En dus moeten we nu, op de relatief veilige aarde, alvast bedenken wat we daar gaan doen, nodig hebben, wat er mis kan gaan en wat we doen als het allemaal in het honderd loopt. En daarbij wordt niet alleen gekeken naar de technische kant van zo’n uitdagende missie. “Er zijn ook psychologische en medische aspecten,” benadrukt Wijnen.

Er valt dus veel te onderzoeken. En je kunt je dan ook afvragen of bijvoorbeeld het plan van NASA om in 2035 al mensen op Mars te zetten, wel haalbaar is. “NASA wil in 2024 eerst weer mensen – en de eerste vrouw – op de maan zetten. Dat is al krap. En wanneer je naar Mars gaat, komt er nog zoveel meer bij kijken. Hoe ga je astronauten onderweg en ter plekke beschermen tegen straling? Hoe kom je aan genoeg zuurstof en drinkwater? En hoe zorg je ervoor dat ze voldoende voedsel hebben? En wat als een astronaut ziek wordt of geopereerd moet worden? Er zijn zoveel grote problemen waar op dit moment nog geen oplossing voor is, dat ik denk dat het misschien nog wel 30 jaar kan duren voor we aan bemande Marsmissies toe zijn.” Zolang hoeft Wijnen gelukkig niet te wachten. Hij gaat in oktober naar een stukje Mars op aarde. In een poging de nu nog met obstakels bezaaide weg naar Mars weer ietsje verder vrij te maken.

https://www.scientias.nl/nederlandse-an ... -woestijn/
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

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Nog wat leuke plaatjes...

New Mars Curiosity Rover Pictures
6 feb. 2020

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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

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Landingsplaats van NASA's nieuwe Marsrover heeft eventuele sporen van leven zorgvuldig opgeborgen

Vivian Lammerse, 28 april 2020

Afbeelding

Het betekent dat als er ooit leven voorkwam op Mars, de kans vrij groot is dat sporen hiervan in de Jezero-krater opgeslagen liggen.

Als het coronavirus geen roet in het eten gooit, zal de Mars 2020-missie in juli van dit jaar van start gaan. De missie bestaat uit een rover die – in tegenstelling tot eerdere Amerikaanse Marsrovers – daadwerkelijk op jacht kan gaan naar sporen van leven. Of nauwkeuriger gezegd: naar sporen van leven dat is geweest. De rover zal voet zetten in de Jezero-krater; een 45 kilometer groot gebied iets ten noorden van de Martiaanse evenaar. Golvende landstrepen zichtbaar vanuit de ruimte onthullen hier rivieren die ooit over het oppervlak van Mars stroomden. Maar hoe lang stroomde dit water eigenlijk rijkelijk over het Martiaanse landschap? Lang genoeg om bewijs van vervlogen leven vast te kunnen leggen, zo valt te lezen in AGU Advances.

Jezero-krater
Jarenlang heeft NASA nagedacht over een geschikte landingsplek voor de Mars 2020-rover die nu de naam Perseverance draagt. Onderzoekers denken dat zo’n 3,5 miljard jaar geleden de Jezero-krater gevuld was met water dat door rivieren naar de krater werd gevoerd. De ‘armen’ van deze delta zijn nog steeds op de kraterbodem te aanschouwen en zijn door NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter vastgelegd. Over rivierdelta’s op aarde is bekend dat ze op effectieve wijze organische moleculen bewaren. En daarom speculeren wetenschappers dat de Jezero-krater op Mars een goede plek zou kunnen zijn om naar tekenen van leven te zoeken. Een nieuwe analyse van eerder gemaakte satellietbeelden ondersteunt nu deze hypothese.

Een landingsplek kiezen
Een geschikte landingsplek voor een Marsmissie is niet zomaar gekozen. Ook bij de komende Mars 2020-missie had het wat voeten in de aarde. Lang waren er vier kandidaten (waaronder Columbia Hills, een gebied dat eerder door Marsrover Spirit is bezocht) in de race. Maar de Mars 2020-rover gaat niet bij Spirit op bezoek. En ook de gebieden Noordoost Syrtis en Midway (gelegen tussen de Jezero-krater en Noordoost Syrtis) vielen af.



De onderzoekers baseren zich op een recente ontdekking over meanderende rivieren op aarde. In het zogenaamde Toiyabe bekken in de Amerikaanse staat Nevada zijn namelijk kronkelende rivieren gevonden die geen planten herbergen. En dat is interessant. Want wetenschappers denken dat Mars ook nooit vegetatie heeft gekend, terwijl hier wel rivieren voorkwamen. Deze rivieren stroomden mogelijk niet voortdurend; waarschijnlijk bestonden er ook hele droge periodes. En door deze zaken beter in kaart te brengen, krijgen we meer inzicht in hoe lang het precies duurde voordat de delta in de Jezero-krater was gevormd.

Analyse
De analyse onthult nu dat meanderende rivieren zonder planten ongeveer tien keer sneller zijwaarts bewegen dan rivieren met planten op hun oevers. Gebaseerd op de kracht van de zwaartekracht op Mars en de aanname dat Mars geen planten kende, schatten wetenschappers in dat de delta in de Jezero-krater zo’n twintig tot veertig jaar nodig had om zich te vormen. Maar, waarschijnlijk gebeurde dit met horten en stoten, waardoor het in totaal zo’n 400.000 jaar in beslag nam. “Dit is handig om te weten, omdat één van de grote mysteries op Mars de tijd is,” legt onderzoeksleider Mathieu Lapôtre uit. “Door een manier te vinden om de duur van het proces te berekenen, kunnen we meer over de dimensie van tijd te weten komen.”

Opgeslagen
Naar aanleiding van deze ontdekking concluderen de onderzoekers dat de formatie van de Jezero-krater genoeg tijd in beslag nam waardoor eventuele levensvormen konden worden bewaard in sedimenten. “We hebben aangetoond dat sedimenten snel werden afgezet,” zegt Lapôtre. “Als er organische moleculen bestonden, dan zouden deze snel zijn begraven waardoor ze goed bewaard en beschermd zijn gebleven,” concludeert Lapôtre.

Leven
De volgende missie van NASA belooft een spannende zoektocht naar leven op de rode planeet te worden. Maar tegelijkertijd kunnen we ook meer over het leven op onze aarde leren. Vondsten van Perseverance in de Jezero-krater kunnen ons namelijk ook helpen begrijpen hoe het leven op aarde is geëvolueerd. Als er ooit leven op Mars voorkwam, evolueerde het waarschijnlijk niet verder dan het eencellige stadium. Dat komt omdat de Jezero-krater meer dan 3,5 miljard jaar geleden is ontstaan, lang voordat organismen op aarde meercellig werden. Bovendien is mogelijk leven op Mars plotsklaps tot stilstand gebracht door een onbekende gebeurtenis. En dit betekent dat de krater op Mars kan dienen als een soort tijdcapsule die mogelijk sporen van leven heeft bewaard zoals het ook ooit op aarde bestond. Met andere woorden, we kunnen dus een andere planeet gebruiken om te gaan begrijpen hoe het leven er mogelijk op aarde in het prille begin uitzag. “Hierdoor kunnen we ook veel leren over wat leven is,” zegt Lapôtre.

Hoe opwindend het ook is, de eerste resultaten zullen nog wel even op zich laten wachten. De lancering van de Mars 2020-missie staat vooralsnog voor deze zomer gepland. In februari 2021 wordt de rover op Mars verwacht. De rover zal ongeveer twee jaar nodig hebben om zowel de bodem van de Jezero-krater af te speuren, als de delta te verkennen. De Mars 2020-rover is hiervoor uitgerust met een reeks nieuwe wetenschappelijke instrumenten die het mogelijk moeten maken om buitenaards leven te vinden. Mars 2020 zal dus daadwerkelijk zoeken naar sporen van microbieel leven uit het verleden, maar zal ook monsters nemen die mee terug naar de aarde zullen worden gebracht voor verder onderzoek.

https://www.scientias.nl/landingsplaats ... pgeborgen/
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

Bericht door xplosive »

 
May 1, 2020, by Andrew Good and Alana Johnson

Afbeelding
A close-up of the head of Mars Perseverance's remote sensing mast. The mast head contains the SuperCam instrument (its lens is in the large circular opening). In the gray boxes beneath mast head are the two Mastcam-Z imagers. On the exterior sides of those imagers are the rover's two navigation cameras.
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech


When it launches this summer, NASA's Perseverance rover will have the most advanced pair of "eyes" ever sent to the Red Planet's surface: Its Mastcam-Z instrument packs a next-gen zoom capability that will help the mission make 3D imagery more easily. Rover operators, who carefully plan out each driving route and each movement of a rover's robotic arm, view these stereo images through 3D goggles to see the contours of the landscape.

Located on Perseverance's "head," Mastcam-Z (the Z stands for "zoom") is a more advanced version of Mastcam, which NASA's Curiosity Mars rover has relied on to produce gorgeous panoramas of the Martian landscape. But it does more than that, and so will Mastcam-Z: Along with producing images that enable the public to follow the rover's daily discoveries, the cameras provide key data to help engineers navigate and scientists choose interesting rocks to study. The difference is that Curiosity's Mastcam can't zoom.

read further : https://www.nasa.gov/feature/jpl/nasas-perseverance-rover-will-look-at-mars-through-these-eyes
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

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Wetenschappers vinden sporen van miljarden jaren oude rivieren op Mars

05 mei 2020

Voor het eerst zijn er sporen van inmiddels uitgedroogde rivieren gevonden in de rotsen van Mars. Dat schrijven wetenschappers in het vakblad Nature Communications. Een rotswand van 200 meter hoog bestaat uit afzettingsgesteente, afkomstig uit rivieren die 3,7 miljard jaar geleden over de rode planeet stroomden.

De rivieren werden ontdekt door Britse, Franse, Italiaanse en Nederlandse onderzoekers, die satellietbeelden van de gesteenten analyseerden. De rivieren zouden hebben gestroomd in de Hellas-inslagkrater, op het zuidelijk halfrond van de planeet.

Het team paste technieken toe die al jaren op aarde worden gebruikt om lagen van afzettingsgesteenten te onderzoeken. De gesteenten in kwestie zijn waarschijnlijk slechts een deel van alle sporen die de rivieren hebben achtergelaten, maar de rest is mogelijk verloren gegaan door erosie of bedolven onder lagen van ander materiaal. Hoe de nieuw ontdekte rivieren eruit hebben gezien is nog niet vastgesteld.

Wetenschappers hebben al langer bewijs dat er op de rode planeet vroeger vloeibaar water kon zijn. De atmosfeer van de planeet zou dikker zijn geweest, zodat temperaturen beter vast konden worden gehouden om stromende rivieren mogelijk te maken.

Ook zou er een groot vloeibaar meer zijn onder de zuidpool van Mars en heeft de planeet mogelijk grondwatersystemen op 750 meter diepte.

https://www.nu.nl/wetenschap/6049148/we ... -mars.html
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

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By Ciaran Mcgrath, Published: 15:03, Tue, May 12, 2020 | Updated: 15:27, Tue, May 12, 2020

Russia is drawing up plans to colonise Mars, identifying the Red Planet as the most suitable planet in the solar system to establish permanently manned colonies.

However, scientists have acknowledged there are massive obstacles, both in terms of human physiology and current technology, blocking mankind's path to the stars. Speaking on Tuesday, Alexander Bloshenko, Executive Director for Long-Term Programs and Science at Russia's state-owned Roscosmos, said the Red Planet represented the best hope of establishing bases on another planet in Earth's neighbourhood.

He added: "The studies of the Sun show that it is getting hotter while the temperature on Venus and Mars is growing slowly and this is one of the reasons why Mars looks, perhaps, most preferable today from the prospect of terraforming the creation of Earth-like conditions on the planet and colonisation."

In the long term, Mr Bloshenko said it would be vital to branch out into the galaxy.

With that as a long-term goal, Roscosmos was preparing for missions to both the Moon and Mars, he added.

Venus, while superficially similar to Earth in terms of its size, is not generally believe to be a suitable candidate.

But Mr Bloshenko stressed there might be a small possibility, high above the planet's surface.

He explained: "The conditions potentially 'attractive' for colonisation are present on Venus only at an altitude of 50 - 65 km: here the planet’s atmosphere most of all resembles that on Earth by its temperature, pressure and gas structure."

However, he also suggested human beings would need to evolve significantly in order to live in a Martian environment, suggesting such pioneers would be of different "genotypes" to those now found on Earth.

The question of whether there is life on Mars has preoccupied mankind for generations and Mr Bloshenko suggested answers may be in the offing.

He said: "Possibly, the next stage of the ExoMars joint Russian-European mission whose launch is scheduled for 2022 will shed light on this issue.

"The program envisages landing on Mars a rover equipped with a drilling device that is capable of getting in the Martian subsurface layer, and also a miniature laboratory to look for signs of life."

Mr Bloshenko also suggested if mankind were to look further afield, outside the solar system, radical new technologies would be necessary to propel such missions.

Anticipating a breakthrough "during our lifetime", he added: "The issue of radically increasing the speed of movement in outer space can be resolved through the development of engines based on new physical principles."

Mr Bloshenko's comments come a week after the publication of a study in the scientific journal Nature last week indicating huge rivers once criss-crossed the surface of Mars.

Author Matt Balme told Express.co.uk: "The more we look for evidence of water and clement environments in the geological record of Mars’s ancient past, the more we find it.

"I am 100 percent convinced that parts of Mars were once more than suitable for life to thrive in – whether life ever started on Mars is a different question – the BIG question that we are all trying to answer.

"This is why we spend money and time on missions like the ESA ExoMars Rosalind Franklin Rover that will launch in 2022 and is specifically designed to search for the chemical signatures of life.

"Mars is probably as good a place to look for extra-terrestrial life as any, and has many advantages: we know that in its past it was more Earth-like in terms of rock, minerals and liquid water being available (all good for life!).

"It's relatively easy to explore (compared to drilling into the ice crust of an outer planet satellite), and we can realistically expect to collect samples from Mars and return them to Earth for study within realistic time and budget constraints."
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Re: Kolonisatie van Mars noodzaak!

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By Carlo Inigo Monzon, May 20, 2020 14:23 +08

Scientists have explained that in order for humans to survive in Mars colonies, they might need to genetically alter their DNA. One way to do this is by combining the genes of the microorganism tardigrade with the cells of humans.

With NASA currently working on a crewed mission to Mars, scientists have been discussing the possibility of establishing human outposts on the Red Planet. One of the factors that could prevent this from happening is the hostile environmental condition of Mars.

Genetic Engineering For Space Colonization

For some scientists, a possible way that could allow humans to survive on Mars is by adapting to the planet on a genetic level. During a recent webinar called "Alienating Mars: Challenges of Space Colonization", different scientists presented their ideas regarding the factors that would make living on Mars possible. Some of them emphasized that in order to adapt to the Red Planet, humans might need to alter certain genetic features.

"Genetic engineering may need to come into play if people want to live and work and thrive and establish their family, and stay on Mars" astrobiologist Kennada Lynch said during the webinar according to Space.com.

Experiments With Tardigrade Genes

Although the idea of genetic engineering for space colonization may seem a bit far-fetched, scientists have already started the initial steps towards achieving this goal. Geneticist Christopher Mason of the Weill Cornell Medicine revealed during the webinar that scientists have already started experimenting with the genes of tardigrades, the microscopic organisms that can survive in space.

In laboratory experiments, the genes from the microorganisms were injected into human cells. According to Mason, the engineered human cells demonstrated greater resistance to radiation than their unaltered counterparts.

Surviving Space With Tardigrade Traits

As noted by Mason, harnessing the traits of tardigrades could provide astronauts and future Mars colonists with a new layer of protection. Through genetic engineering, they could gain a natural shield against radiation from space.

"If we ever get there, those are the cases where the human body would be almost completely fried by the amount of radiation" the scientist stated. "There, it would be a certain death unless you did something, including every kind of shielding you could possibly provide."
Gun jezelf wat je een ander toewenst     islam = racisme   & de hel op aarde voor mens en dier
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      Moslimlanden bewijzen dagelijks:    meer islam = meer verkrachte mensenrechten

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